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# Electric Circuits by James S. Kang

## Electric Circuits Contents

- Chapter 1 Voltage, Present, Energy, and SourCeS
- Chapter 2 CirCuit lawS
- Chapter 3 CirCuit analySiS MethodS
- Chapter 4 CirCuit theoreMS
- Chapter 5 OperatiOnal amplifier CirCuits
- Chapter 7 rC and rl CirCuits
- Chapter 6 CapaCitOrs and induCtOrs
- Chapter 8 rlC CirCuits
- Chapter 9 PhaSorS and iMPedanCeS
- Chapter 10 analySiS of PhaSor-tranSforMed CirCuitS
- Chapter 11 aC Energy
- Chapter 12 three-PhaSe SySteMS
- Chapter 13 MagnetiCally CouPled CirCuitS
- Chapter 14 the laPlaCe remodel
- Chapter 15 CirCuit analySiS within the s-doMain
- Chapter 16 firSt- and SeCond-order analog filterS
- Chapter 17 analog filter design
- Chapter 18 fourier SerieS
- Chapter 19 fourier remodel

## Preface to Electric Circuits

This ebook is meant to be an introductory textual content with reference to electrical circuits. It gives easy explanations of the fundamental ideas, adopted by easy examples and workouts.

When obligatory, detailed derivations for the primary matters and examples are given to assist readers perceive the primary concepts.

MATLAB is a instrument that can be utilized successfully in Electric Circuits programs. On this textual content, MATLAB is built-in into chosen examples as an instance its use in fixing circuit issues.

MATLAB can be utilized to test the solutions or resolve extra complicated circuit issues. This textual content is written for a two-semester sequence or a three-quarters sequence on electrical circuits.

Overview of Chapters

In Chapter 1, definitions of voltage, present, energy, and vitality are given. Additionally, unbiased voltage supply and present supply are launched, together with dependent voltage sources and present sources.

In Chapter 2, nodes, branches, meshes, and loops are launched. Ohm’s legislation is defined. Kirchhoff’s present legislation (KCL), Kirchhoff’s voltage legislation (KVL), the voltage divider rule, and the present divider rule are defined with examples.

In Chapter 3, nodal evaluation and mesh evaluation are mentioned in depth. The nodal evaluation and mesh evaluation are used extensively in the remainder of the textual content.

Chapter 4 introduces circuit theorems which might be helpful in analyzing electrical circuits and digital circuits. The circuit theorems mentioned on this chapter are the superposition precept, supply transformations, Thévenin’s theorem, Norton’s theorem, and most energy switch.

Chapter 5 introduces op amp circuits. Op amp is a flexible built-in circuit (IC) chip that has wide-ranging functions in circuit design. The idea of the best op amp mannequin is defined, together with functions in sum and distinction, instrumentation amplifier, and present amplifier. Detailed evaluation of inverting configuration and noninverting configuration is offered.

In Chapter 6, the vitality storage components referred to as capacitors and inductors are mentioned. The present voltage relation of capacitors and inductors are derived. The vitality saved on the capacitors and inductors are introduced.

In Chapter 7, the transformation of RC and RL circuits to differential equations and options of the first-order differential equations to get the responses of the circuits are introduced. Within the common first-order circuits, the enter sign might be dc, ramp sign, exponential sign, or sinusoidal sign.

In Chapter 8, the transformation of collection RLC and parallel RLC circuits to the secondorder differential equations, in addition to fixing the second-order differential equations to get the responses of the circuits are introduced. Within the common second-order circuits, the enter sign might be dc, ramp sign, exponential sign, or sinusoidal sign.

Chapter 9 introduces sinusoidal indicators, phasors, impedances, and admittances. Additionally, remodeling ac circuits to phasor-transformed circuits is introduced, together with analyzing phasor remodeled circuits utilizing KCL, KVL, equal impedances, delta-wye transformation, and wye-delta transformation.

The evaluation of phasor-transformed circuits is sustained in Chapter 10 with the introduction of the voltage divider rule, present divider rule, nodal evaluation, mesh evaluation, superposition precept, supply transformation, Thévenin equal circuit, Norton equal circuit, and switch operate. This evaluation is much like the one for resistive circuits with the usage of impedances.

Chapter 11 presents data on ac energy. The definitions of instantaneous energy, common energy, reactive energy, complicated energy, obvious energy, and energy issue are additionally given, and energy issue correction is defined with examples. As an extension of ac energy, the three-phase system is introduced in Chapter 12.

The connection of balanced sources (wye-connected or delta-connected) to balanced hundreds (wye-connected or delta related) are introduced, each with and with out wire impedances. Magnetically coupled circuits, that are associated to ac energy, are mentioned in Chapter 13.

Mutual inductance, induced voltage, dot conference, linear transformers, and splendid transformers are launched. The Laplace remodel is launched in Chapter 14.

The definition of the remodel, area of convergence, remodel, and inverse remodel are defined with examples. Numerous properties of Laplace remodel are additionally introduced with examples. The dialogue on Laplace remodel is sustained in Chapter 15.

Electric circuits might be remodeled into an s-domain by changing voltage sources and present sources to the s-domain and changing capacitors and inductors to impedances. The circuit legal guidelines and theorems that apply to resistive circuits additionally apply to s-domain circuits.

The time area sign might be obtained by taking the inverse Laplace remodel of the s-domain illustration. The differential equations within the time area are remodeled to algebraic equations within the s-domain.

The switch operate within the s-domain is outlined because the ratio of the output sign within the s-domain to the enter sign within the s-domain. The idea of convolution is launched with quite a few examples. Additionally, discovering the convolution utilizing Laplace transforms are illustrated in the identical examples.

Plotting the magnitude response and section response of a circuit or a system utilizing the Bode diagram is launched. The primary-order and the second-order analog filters which might be constructing blocks for the higher-order filters are introduced in Chapter 16.

The filters might be carried out by interconnecting passive components consisting of resistors, capacitors, and inductors.

Alternatively, filters might be carried out using op amp circuits. Sallen and Key circuits for implementing second-order filters are mentioned as effectively, together with design examples. The dialogue on analog filter design is prolonged in Chapter 17.

A filter is designed to fulfill the specs of the filter. The switch operate that satisfies the specification is discovered. From the switch operate, the nook frequency and Q worth might be discovered. Then, the normalized element values and scaled element values are discovered. PSpice simulations can be utilized to confirm the design.

Orthogonal features and the illustration of indicators as a linear mixture of a set of orthogonal features are launched in Chapter 18.

If the set of orthogonal features consists of harmonically associated sinusoids or exponential features, the illustration known as the Fourier collection. Fourier collection illustration of widespread indicators, together with the sq. pulse prepare, triangular pulse prepare, sawtooth waveform, and rectified cosine and sine, are introduced intimately, with examples.

The derivation and utility of the time-shifting property of Fourier coefficients are offered. As well as, the appliance of the Fourier collection illustration in fixing circuit issues are introduced, together with examples.

Because the interval of a periodic sign is elevated to infinity, the sign turns into nonperiodic, the discrete line spectrums turn out to be a steady spectrum, and multiplying the Fourier coefficients by the interval produces the Fourier remodel, as defined in Chapter 19.

Essential properties of the Fourier remodel, together with time shifting, frequency shifting, symmetry, modulation, convolution, and multiplication, are launched, together with interpretation and examples. Two-port circuits are outlined and analyzed in Chapter 20.

Relying on which of the parameters are chosen as unbiased variables, there are six completely different representations for two-port circuits. The coefficients of the representations are referred to as parameters.

The six parameters (z, y, h, g, ABCD, b) for two-port circuits are introduced together with examples. The conversion between the parameters and the interconnection of parameters are offered on this chapter.

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