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Laboratory Experiments for General Organic and Biochemistry Fourth Version by Bettelheim and Landesberg
The 48 experiments in this well-conceived manual illustrate important concepts and principles in general, organic, and biochemistry. As in previous editions, three basic goals guided the development of all the experiments: (1) the experiments illustrate the concepts learned in the classroom; (2) the experiments are clearly and concisely written so that students will easily understand the task at hand, will work with minimal supervision because the manual provides enough information on experimental procedures, and will be able to perform the experiments in a 2 1/2-hour laboratory period; and, (3) the experiments are not only simple demonstrations, but also contain a sense of discovery. This edition includes many revised experiments.
The Laboratory Gasoline BurnerTirrill or Bunsen burners present a prepared supply of warmth within the chemistry laboratory. Usually, since chemical reactions proceed sooner at elevated temperatures, using warmth permits the experimenter to perform many experiments extra rapidly than can be doable at room temperature. The burner illustrated in Fig. 1.1 is typical of the burners utilized in most basic chemistry laboratories.
A burner is designed to permit fuel and air to combine in a managed method. The fuel typically used is “pure fuel,” principally the extremely flammable and odorless hydrocarbon methane, CH4. When ignited, the flame’s temperature could be adjusted by altering the varied proportions of fuel and air. The fuel circulation could be managed both on the predominant fuel valve or on the fuel management valve on the base of the burner. Manipulation of the air vents on the backside of the barrel permits air to enter and combine with the fuel.
The most well liked flame has a violet outer cone, a pale-blue center cone, and a dark-blue internal cone; the air vents, on this case, are opened sufficiently to guarantee full combustion of the fuel. Lack of air produces a cooler, luminous yellow flame. This flame lacks the internal cone and almost certainly is smoky, and typically deposits soot on objects it contacts. An excessive amount of air blows out the flame.
Within the chemistry laboratory, it’s typically vital to switch equipment produced from glass or to attach items of kit with glass tubing. Following right procedures for working with glass, particularly glass tubing, is essential. Glass is a super-cooled liquid. In contrast to crystalline solids which have sharp melting factors, glass softens when heated, flows, and thus could be labored. Bending, molding, and blowing are customary operations in glassworking.
Not all glass is identical; there are completely different grades and compositions. Most laboratory glassware is produced from borosilicate glass (containing silica and borax compounds). Commercially, such a glass is called Pyrex (made by Corning Glass) or Kimax (made by Kimble glass). This glass doesn’t soften very a lot under 800 C and, due to this fact, requires a very popular flame to be able to work it.
A Bunsen burner flame offers a sizzling sufficient temperature for basic glassworking. As well as, borosilicate glass has a low thermal coefficient of growth. This refers back to the materials’s change in quantity per diploma change in temperature. Borosilicate glass expands or contracts slowly when heated or cooled. Thus, glassware composed of this materials can face up to speedy modifications in temperature and can resist cracking.
Tender glass consists primarily of silica sand, SiO2. Glass of this sort softens within the area of 300–400 C, and due to this low softening temperature just isn’t appropriate for most laboratory work. It has one other unlucky property that makes it a poor materials for laboratory glassware. Tender glass has a excessive thermal coefficient of growth. Because of this comfortable glass expands or contracts very quickly when heated or cooled; sudden, speedy modifications in temperature introduce an excessive amount of stress into the fabric, and the glass cracks. Whereas comfortable glass could be labored simply utilizing a Bunsen burner, care have to be taken to stop breakage; with annealing, by first mildly reheating and then uniformly, step by step cooling, stresses and strains could be managed.
Laboratory Experiments For General, Organic and Biochemistry
Author(s): Bettelheim F.A.
Publisher: Brooks Cole, Year: 2000
[PDF] Laboratory Experiments for General Organic and Biochemistry by Bettelheim Table Of Contents
Cover Page……Page 1
1. Laboratory techniques: use of the laboratory gas burner; basic glassworking……Page 2
2. Laboratory measurements……Page 12
3. Density determination……Page 28
4. The separation of the components of a mixture……Page 40
5. Resolution of a mixture by distillation……Page 50
6. The empirical formula of a compound: the Law of Constant Composition……Page 58
7. Determination of the formula of a metal oxide……Page 66
8. Classes of chemical reactions……Page 74
9. Chemical properties of consumer products……Page 88
10. Water analysis……Page 98
11. Calorimetry: the determination of the specific heat of a metal……Page 106
12. Boyle’s Law: the pressure–volume relationship of a gas……Page 122
13. Charles’s Law: the volume–temperature relationship of a gas……Page 132
14. Properties of gases: determination of the molecular weight of a volatile liquid……Page 140
15. Physical properties of chemicals: melting point, sublimation, and boiling point……Page 150
16. Entropy: a measure of disorder……Page 162
17. Solubility and solution……Page 174
18. Water of hydration……Page 184
19. Colligative properties: freezing point depression and osmotic pressure……Page 194
20. Factors affecting rate of reactions……Page 204
21. Law of chemical equilibrium and Le Chatelier’s principle……Page 214
22. pH and buffer solutions……Page 222
23. Analysis of vinegar by titration……Page 232
24. Analysis of antacid tablets……Page 240
25. Measurement of sulfur dioxide preservative in foods……Page 248
26. Structure in organic compounds: use of molecular models. I……Page 256
27. Stereochemistry: use of molecular models. II……Page 270
28. Identification of hydrocarbons……Page 288
29. Column and paper chromatography: separation of plant pigments……Page 300
30. Identification of alcohols and phenols……Page 312
31. Identification of aldehydes and ketones……Page 324
32. Properties of carboxylic acids and esters……Page 338
33. Properties of amines and amides……Page 350
34. Polymerization reactions……Page 360
35. Preparation of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin)……Page 370
36. Measurement of the active ingredient in aspirin pills……Page 380
37. Isolation of caffeine from tea leaves……Page 386
38. Carbohydrates……Page 396
39. Preparation and properties of a soap……Page 406
40. Preparation of a hand cream……Page 414
41. Extraction and identification of fatty acids from corn oil……Page 422
42. Analysis of lipids……Page 430
43. TLC separation of amino acids……Page 438
44. Acid–base properties of amino acids……Page 448
45. Isolation and identification of casein……Page 456
46. Isolation and identification of DNA from yeast……Page 468
47. Viscosity and secondary structrue of DNA……Page 476
48. Kinetics of urease—catalyzed decomposition of urea……Page 488
49. Isocitrate dehydrogenase—an enzyme of citric acid cycle……Page 498
50. Quantitative analysis of vitamin C contained in foods……Page 508
51. Analysis of vitamin A in margarine……Page 516
52. Urine analysis……Page 526
Appendix 1. List of Apparatus and Equipment in Student’s Locker……Page 536
Appendix 2. List of Common Equipment and Materials in the Laboratory……Page 537
Appendix 3. Special Equipment and Chemicals……Page 538
PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS……Page 569