Organic Chemistry – Principles and Mechanisms, 2nd Edition by Joel M. Karty :: Overview: Organic Chemistry and You : You are taking organic chemistry for a reason — you might be pursuing a career in which an understanding of organic chemistry is crucial, or the course might be required for your particular field of study, or both. You might even be taking the course simply out of interest. Regardless of the reason, organic chemistry impacts your life in significant ways. Consider, for example, the growing concern about the increasing resistance of bacteria to antibiotics over the past several decades. Perhaps no germ has caused more alarm than methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), a type of bacteria responsible for staph infections. Methicillin is a member of the penicillin family of antibiotics, and resistance to methicillin in these bacteria was first observed in 1961. Today MRSA, which has been called a superbug, is resistant to most antibiotics, including all penicillinderived antibiotics. A breakthrough in the fight against MRSA occurred in 2006 with the discovery of a compound called platensimycin, isolated from Streptomyces spores. The way that platensimycin targets bacteria is different from that of any other antibiotic in use and, therefore, it is not currently susceptible to bacterial resistance.
Platensimycin is found in a type of South African mushroom, Streptomyces platensis, and was discovered by screening 250,000 natural product extracts for antibacterial activity. Sheo B. Singh (Merck Research Laboratories) and coworkers determined the structure of platensimycin using a technique called nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, which we discuss in Chapter 16. Not long after, K. C. Nicolaou and coworkers from the Scripps Research Institute (La Jolla, California) and the University of California, San Diego, were the first to devise a synthesis of platensimycin from other readily available chemicals. The story of platensimycin, from discovery to synthesis, involves several of the subdisciplines that make up the field of organic chemistry.
● Biological chemistry (biochemistry): The study of the behavior of biomolecules and the nature of chemical reactions that occur in living systems.
● Structure determination: The use of established experimental techniques to determine the structure of newly discovered compounds.
● Organic synthesis: The design of pathways for making new compounds from existing, readily available compounds by means of known organic reactions.
Organic Chemistry – Principles and Mechanisms, 2nd Edition by Joel M. Karty
|Title:||Organic Chemistry – Principles and Mechanisms|
|Editor:||Joel M. Karty|
|Publisher:||W. W. Norton & Company|
Atomic and Molecular Structure
Interchapter A Nomenclature: The Basic System for Naming Simple Organic Compounds: Alkanes, Haloalkanes, Nitroalkanes, Cycloalkanes, and Ethers
Three-Dimensional Geometry, Intermolecular Interactions, and Physical Properties
Orbital Interactions 1: Hybridization and Two-Center Molecular Orbitals
Interchapter B Naming Alkenes, Alkynes, and Benzene Derivatives
Isomerism 1: Conformational and Constitutional Isomers
Isomerism 2: Chirality, Enantiomers, and Diastereomers
Interchapter C Stereochemistry in Nomenclature: R and S Configurations about Asymmetric Carbons and Z and E Configurations about Double Bonds
The Proton Transfer Reaction: An Introduction to Mechanisms, Thermodynamics, and Charge Stability
An Overview of the Most Common Elementary Steps
Interchapter D Molecular Orbital Theory, Hyperconjugation, and Chemical Reactions
Interchapter E Naming Compounds with a Functional Group That Calls for a Suffix 1: Alcohols, Amines, Ketones, and Aldehydes
An Introduction to Multistep Mechanisms: SN1 and E1 Reactions and Their Comparisons to SN2 and E2 Reactions
Interchapter F Naming Compounds with a Functional Group That Calls for a Suffix 2: Carboxylic Acids and Their Derivatives
Nucleophilic Substitution and Elimination Reactions 1: Competition among SN2, SN1, E2, and E1 Reactions
Nucleophilic Substitution and Elimination Reactions 2: Reactions That Are Useful for Synthesis
Electrophilic Addition to Nonpolar π Bonds 1: Addition of a Brønsted Acid
Electrophilic Addition to Nonpolar π Bonds 2: Reactions Involving Cyclic Transition States
Organic Synthesis 1: Beginning Concepts
Orbital Interactions 2: Extended π Systems, Conjugation, and Aromaticity
Structure Determination 1: Ultraviolet–Visible and Infrared Spectroscopies
Structure Determination 2: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Mass Spectrometry
Nucleophilic Addition to Polar π Bonds 1: Addition of Strong Nucleophiles
Nucleophilic Addition to Polar π Bonds 2: Weak Nucleophiles and Acid and Base Catalysis
Organic Synthesis 2: Intermediate Topics in Synthesis Design, and Useful Redox and Carbon–Carbon Bond-Formation Reactions
Nucleophilic Addition–Elimination Reactions 1: The General Mechanism Involving Strong Nucleophiles
Nucleophilic Addition–Elimination Reactions 2: Weak Nucleophiles
Aromatic Substitution 1: Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution on Benzene; Useful Accompanying Reactions
Aromatic Substitution 2: Reactions of Substituted Benzene and Other Rings
The Diels–Alder Reaction and Other Pericyclic Reactions
Reactions Involving Free Radicals – Interchapter G Fragmentation Pathways in Mass Spectrometry