Concepts of Biology

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Title: Concepts of Biology Volume: 2nd Edition
Author(s): Sylvia S. Mader
Publisher: McGraw-Hill
Year: 2010 Edition: 2
Language: English Pages: 190 (603 pages missing)\190
ISBN: 0073403482, 9780073403489
Size: 27 MB (28310917 bytes) Extension: pdf
Book Description:

Instructors consistently ask for a textbook that helps students understand the relationships between the main concepts of biology, so they are not learning facts about biology in isolation. Mader’s Concepts of Biology was developed to fill this void. Organized around the main themes of biology, Concepts of Biology guides students to think conceptually about biology and the world around them. Just as the levels of biological organization flow from one level to the next, themes and topics in Concepts of Biology are tied to one another throughout the chapter, and between the chapters and parts. Combined with Dr. Mader’s hallmark writing style, exceptional art program, and pedagogical framework, difficult concepts become easier to understand and visualize, allowing students to focus on understanding how the concepts are related. The integration of text and the digital world are now complete with McGraw-Hill’s ConnectPlus and LearnSmart. ConnectPlus allows you assign content from the text by Learning Outcomes and the reporting features are the best in the market. Users who purchase Connect Plus receive access to the full online ebook version of the textbook.

 

Table of contents :

Cover Page……Page 1
Title Page……Page 2
Copyright Page……Page 3
Brief Contents……Page 4
Preface……Page 5
About the Author……Page 6
Guided Tour……Page 7
Acknowledgments……Page 14
Supplements……Page 17
Contents……Page 19
1 Biology, the Study of Life……Page 33
Fire Ants Have a Good Defense……Page 34
Organisms Are Characterized by Diversity and Unity……Page 35
Classification Helps Us Understand Diversity……Page 39
The Biosphere Is Organized……Page 41
Scientists Observe, Hypothesize, and Test……Page 42
2 Basic Chemistry and Cells……Page 49
Life Depends on Water……Page 50
All Matter Is Composed of Chemical Elements……Page 51
Atoms React with One Another to Form Molecules……Page 54
The Properties of Water Benefit Life……Page 58
Living Things Require a Narrow pH Range……Page 61
3 Organic Molecules and Cells……Page 67
Plants and Animals Are the Same but Different……Page 68
The Diversity of Organic Molecules Makes Life Diverse……Page 69
Carbohydrates Are Energy Sources and Structural Components……Page 72
Lipids Provide Storage, Insulation, and Other Functions……Page 74
Proteins Have a Wide Variety of Vital Functions……Page 76
Nucleic Acids Are Information Molecules……Page 79
4 Structure and Function of Cells……Page 85
Cells: What Are They?……Page 86
Cells Are the Basic Units of Life……Page 87
Protein Synthesis Is a Major Function of Cells……Page 93
Vesicles and Vacuoles Have Varied Functions……Page 97
A Cell Carries Out Energy Transformations……Page 99
The Cytoskeleton Maintains Cell Shape and Assists Movement……Page 101
In Multicellular Organisms, Cells Join Together……Page 103
5 Dynamic Activities of Cells……Page 107
Life’s Energy Comes from the Sun……Page 108
Living Things Transform Energy……Page 109
Enzymes Speed Chemical Reactions……Page 113
The Plasma Membrane Has Many and Various Functions……Page 116
The Plasma Membrane Regulates the Passage of Molecules Into and Out of Cells……Page 119
6 Pathways of Photosynthesis……Page 125
Color It Green……Page 126
Photosynthesis Produces Food and Releases Oxygen……Page 127
First, Solar Energy Is Captured……Page 131
Second, Carbohydrate Is Synthesized……Page 135
C3, C4, and CAM Photosynthesis Thrive Under Different Conditions……Page 137
7 Pathways of Cellular Respiration……Page 143
ATP Is Universal……Page 144
Glucose Breakdown Releases Energy……Page 145
Carbon Dioxide and Water Are Produced During Glucose Breakdown……Page 147
Fermentation Is Inefficient……Page 154
Metabolic Pathways Cross at Particular Substrates……Page 156
Biological Viewpoints Organisms Are Composed of Cells……Page 161
8 Cell Division and Reproduction……Page 163
Cancer Is a Genetic Disorder……Page 164
Cell Division Ensures the Passage of Genetic Information
……Page 165
Somatic Cells Have a Cell Cycle and Undergo Mitosis and Cytokinesis
……Page 167
Cancer Is Uncontrolled Cell Division……Page 172
Meiosis Produces Cells That Become the Gametes in Animals and Spores in Other Organisms
……Page 176
Chromosomal Abnormalities Can Be Inherited……Page 183
9 Patterns of Genetic Inheritance……Page 189
Inbreeding Leads to Disorders……Page 190
Gregor Mendel Deduced Laws of Inheritance……Page 191
Single-Trait Crosses Reveal Units of Inheritance and the Law of Segregation
……Page 193
Two-Trait Crosses Support the Law of Independent
Assortment……Page 195
Mendel’s Laws Apply to Humans……Page 198
Complex Inheritance Patterns Extend the Range of Mendelian Analysis
……Page 202
Chromosomes Are the Carriers of Genes……Page 205
10 Molecular Biology of Inheritance……Page 213
Arabidopsis Is a Model Organism……Page 214
DNA Is the Genetic Material……Page 215
DNA Can Be Duplicated……Page 221
Genes Specify the Makeup of Proteins……Page 223
Mutations Are Changes in the Sequence of DNA Bases
……Page 231
11 Regulation of Gene Activity……Page 237
Moth and Butterfly Wings Tell a Story
……Page 238
Gene Expression Is Controlled in Prokaryotic Cells……Page 239
Control of Gene Expression in Eukaryotes Causes Specialized Cells
……Page 240
Control of Gene Expression Is Varied in Eukaryotes
……Page 243
Gene Expression Is Controlled During Development……Page 247
Genetic Mutations Cause Cancer……Page 249
12 Biotechnology and Genomics……Page 255
Witnessing Genetic Engineering……Page 256
DNA Can Be Cloned……Page 257
Organisms Can Be Genetically Modified
……Page 259
The Human Genome Can Be Manipulated……Page 265
Biological Viewpoints Genes Control the Traits of Organisms
……Page 271
13 Darwin and Evolution……Page 273
The “Vice Versa” of Animals and Plants……Page 274
Darwin Developed a Natural Selection Hypothesis……Page 275
The Evidence for Evolution Is Strong……Page 280
Population Genetics Tells Us When Microevolution Occurs
……Page 284
14 Speciation and Evolution……Page 293
Hybrid Animals Do Exist……Page 294
Evolution of Diversity Requires Speciation……Page 295
Origin of Species Usually Requires Geographic Separation
……Page 299
Origin of Species Can Occur in One Place……Page 302
The Fossil Record Shows Both Gradual and Rapid
Speciation……Page 304
Developmental Genes Provide a Mechanism for Rapid Speciation
……Page 307
Speciation Is Not Goal-Oriented……Page 309
15 The History and Classification of Life on Earth
……Page 313
Motherhood Among Dinosaurs……Page 314
The Fossil Record Reveals the History of Life on Earth
……Page 315
Systematics Traces Evolutionary Relationships……Page 321
The Three-Domain Classification System Is Widely Accepted
……Page 327
16 Evolution of Microbial Life……Page 331
At Your Service: Viruses and Bacteria……Page 332
Viruses Reproduce in Living Cells……Page 333
The First Cells Originated on Early Earth……Page 339
Both Bacteria and Archaea Are Prokaryotes……Page 342
17 Evolution of Protists……Page 353
Protists Cause Disease Too……Page 354
Protists May Represent the Oldest Eukaryotic Cells
……Page 355
Protozoans Are Heterotrophic Protists with Various Means of Locomotion
……Page 358
Some Protists Have Moldlike Characteristics……Page 362
Algae Are Photosynthetic Protists of Environmental Importance
……Page 363
18 Evolution of Plants and Fungi……Page 371
Some Plants Are Carnivorous……Page 372
The Evolution of Plants Spans 500 Million Years……Page 373
Plants Are Adapted to the Land Environment……Page 377
Fungi Have Their Own Evolutionary History……Page 389
19 Evolution of Animals……Page 397
The Secret Life of Bats……Page 398
Key Innovations Distinguish Invertebrate Groups……Page 399
Further Innovations Allowed Vertebrates to Invade the Land Environment
……Page 417
20 Evolution of Humans……Page 429
Lucy’s Legacy……Page 430
Humans Share Characteristics with All the Other Primates
……Page 431
Humans Have an Upright Stance and Eventually a Large
Brain……Page 435
Homo sapiens Is the Last Twig on the Primate Evolutionary Bush
……Page 441
Today’s Humans Belong to One Species……Page 445
Biological Viewpoints Organisms Are Related and Adapted to Their Environment
……Page 449
21 Plant Organization and Homeostasis……Page 451
What Do Forests Have to Do with Global Warming?……Page 452
Plants Have Three Vegetative Organs……Page 453
The Same Plant Cells and Tissues Are Found in All Plant Organs
……Page 457
Plant Growth Is Either Primary or Secondary……Page 461
Leaf Anatomy Facilitates Photosynthesis……Page 465
Plants Maintain Internal Equilibrium……Page 466
22 Transport and Nutrition in Plants……Page 471
Plants Can Adapt Too……Page 472
Plants Are Organized to Transport Water and Solutes
……Page 473
Xylem Transport Depends on the Properties of Water
……Page 475
Phloem Function Depends on Membrane Transport
……Page 479
Plants Require Good Nutrition and Therefore Good Soil
……Page 481
23 Control of Growth and Responses in Plants……Page 489
Recovering Slowly……Page 490
Plant Hormones Regulate Plant Growth and Development
……Page 491
Plants Respond to Environmental Stimuli……Page 497
24 Reproduction in Plants……Page 509
With a Little Help……Page 510
Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants Is Suitable to the Land Environment……Page 511
Seeds Contain a New Diploid Generation……Page 515
Plants Can Also Reproduce Asexually……Page 518
Biological Viewpoints Plants Are Homeostatic……Page 523
25 Animal Organization and Homeostasis……Page 525
Staying Warm, Staying Cool……Page 526
Four Types of Tissues Are Common in the Animal Body
……Page 527
Organs, Composed of Tissues, Work Together in Organ Systems
……Page 534
All Organ Systems Contribute to Homeostasis in Animals
……Page 535
26 Coordination by Neural Signaling……Page 543
Getting a Head……Page 544
Most Animals Have a Nervous System That Allows Responses to Stimuli
……Page 545
Neurons Process and Transmit Information……Page 548
The Vertebrate Central Nervous System (CNS) Consists of the Spinal Cord and Brain
……Page 555
The Vertebrate Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) Consists of Nerves
……Page 559
27 Sense Organs……Page 565
The Eyes Have It……Page 566
Sensory Receptors Respond to Stimuli……Page 567
Chemoreceptors Are Sensitive to Chemicals……Page 569
Photoreceptors Are Sensitive to Light……Page 571
Mechanoreceptors Are Involved in Hearingand Balance……Page 575
28 Locomotion and Support Systems……Page 583
Skeletal Remains Reveal All……Page 584
Animal Skeletons Support, Move, and Protectthe Body……Page 585
The Mammalian Skeleton Is a Series of BonesConnected at Joints……Page 587
Animal Movement Is Dependent on Muscle Cell Contraction……Page 594
29 Circulation and Cardiovascular Systems……Page 603
Not All Animals Have Red Blood……Page 604
A Circulatory System Helps Maintain Homeostasis……Page 605
The Mammalian Cardiovascular System Consistsof the Heart and Blood Vessels……Page 608
Blood Has Vital Functions……Page 615
30 Lymph Transport and Immunity……Page 623
AIDS Destroys the Immune System……Page 624
The Lymphatic System Functions in Transportand Immunity……Page 625
The Body’s First Line of Defense Against DiseaseIs is Nonspecific and Innate……Page 627
The Body’s Second Line of Defense Against Disease Is Specifi c to the Pathogen……Page 630
Abnormal Immune Responses Can Have HealthConsequences……Page 636
31 Digestive Systems and Nutrition……Page 641
How to Tell a Carnivore from an Herbivore……Page 642
Animals Must Obtain and Process Their Food……Page 643
Good Nutrition and Diet Lead to Better Health……Page 653
32 Gas Exchange and Transport in Animals……Page 663
Free-Diving Is Dangerous……Page 664
Animals Have Gas-Exchange Surfaces……Page 665
Ventilation Precedes Transport……Page 671
33 Osmoregulation and Excretion……Page 679
Do Coral Reef Animals Regulate?……Page 680
Metabolic Waste ProductsHave Different Advantages……Page 681
Osmoregulation Varies According to theEnvironment……Page 683
The Kidney Is an Organ of Homeostasis……Page 685
34 Coordination by Hormone Signaling……Page 695
Pheromones Among Us……Page 696
The Endocrine System Utilizes Chemical Signals……Page 697
The Hypothalamus and Pituitary Are Centralto the Endocrine System……Page 701
Hormones Regulate Metabolismand Homeostasis……Page 703
35 Reproduction and Development……Page 711
How to Do It on Land……Page 712
Reproduction in Animals Is Varied……Page 713
Humans Are Adapted to Reproducing on Land……Page 715
Vertebrates Have Similar Early Developmental Stagesand Processes……Page 723
Human Development Is Divided into EmbryonicDevelopment and Fetal Development……Page 728
Biological Viewpoints Animals Are Homeostatic……Page 737
36 Population Ecology……Page 739
When a Population Grows Too Large……Page 740
Ecology Studies Where and How Organisms Livein the Biosphere……Page 741
Populations Are Not Static—They Change Over Time……Page 742
Environmental Interactions Influence Population Size……Page 746
The Life History Pattern Can Predict Extinction……Page 748
Human Populations Vary Between Over populationand Overconsumption……Page 750
37 Behavioral Ecology……Page 755
For the Benefit of All……Page 756
Both Innate and Learned Behavior Can Be Adaptive……Page 763
Reproductive Behavior Can Also Be Adaptive……Page 760
Social Behavior Can Increase Fitness……Page 762
Modes of Communication Varywith the Environment……Page 765
38 Community and Ecosystem Ecology……Page 771
Ridding the Land of Waste……Page 772
A Community Contains Several Interacting Populations in the Same Locale……Page 773
A Community Develops and Changes Over Time……Page 780
An Ecosystem Is a Community Interacting with the Physical Environment……Page 783
39 Major Ecosystems of the Biosphere……Page 793
Life Under Glass……Page 794
On Land, the Biosphere Is Organizedinto Terrestrial Ecosystems……Page 795
Fresh Water and Salt Water Are Organizedinto Aquatic Ecosystems……Page 802
40 Conservation of Biodiversity……Page 809
Trouble in Paradise……Page 810
Conservation Biology Focuses on Understanding and Protecting Biodiversity……Page 811
Biodiversity Has Direct Value and Indirect Valuefor Human Beings……Page 813
The Causes of Today’s Extinctions Are Known……Page 816
Conservation Techniques Require Much Effort and Expertise……Page 820
Biological Viewpoints Organisms Live inEcosystems……Page 825
Appendix A: Answers to Check Your Progress and Testing Yourself……Page 827
Appendix B: Metric System……Page 838
Appendix C: Periodic Table of the Elements……Page 839
Glossary……Page 840
Credits……Page 864
Index……Page 870

 

Concepts of Biology PDF

Author(s): Sylvia S. Mader

Publisher: McGraw-Hill, Year: 2010

ISBN: 0073403482

 

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