### Principles of Thermodynamics PDF Book

**Features**

Provides detailed coverage of basic topics

Includes historical background

Broadens the scope of thermodynamics for teaching purposes

Supplies a reference for experts

**Table of Contents**

The Beginnings

Temperature and Thermometry

Ideal Gas Laws

Heat and Specific Heats

Sadi Carnot and the Motive Power of Heat

Steam Engines and the Clapeyron Equation

Problems

First Law—The E = Mc2 of Thermodynamics

The Fall of the Caloric

The Path to the First Law

The First Law of Thermodynamics

Some Applications of the First Law

Problems

Suggested Reading for This Book in General

The Second and Third Laws

Perpetuum Mobiles

The Entropy Axiom: The First Part of the Second Law

Entropy Axiom and Universality of Carnot Cycles

Historical Formulations of the Second Law

Second Law and Irreversibility

An Absolute Scale of Temperature

Applications of the First and Second Laws

Third Law of Thermodynamics – the Nemst-Planck Postulate

Problems

Carnot Cycles – The Turing Machines of Thermodynamics

The Gas Carnot Cycles

The Steam Carnot Cycle

The Stirling Engine

The Otto Cycle

The Brayton Cycle

Carnot Cycle with Photons

Problems

Specific Heats Magnificent Bridges

A Brief History

Varieties of Specific Heats

Specific Heats and the Third Law

Specific Heats and Microscopics

Specific Heats Herald Quantum Theory!

Problems

Structure of Thermodynamic Theories

Extensive and Intensive Variables: General

The Fundamental Equations

True Equations of State

Multicomponent Systems

Entropy of Mixing and the Gibbs Paradox

Worked-Out Examples

Axiomatic Intensive Variables and Equilibrium

Problems

Thermodynamic Potentials and Maxwell Relations

Thermodynamic Potentials

Maxwell’s Relations

Problems

Magnetic Systems

Introduction

Thermodynamic Potentials

Problems

Dilute Solutions

General Considerations

Mixing Revisited

Osmotic Pressure

Vapor Pressure and Boiling Point Point of Solutions

Freezing Point of Dilute Solutions

Salt Water Phase Diagram

Problems

Phases and Their Equilibria

The Gibbs Phase Rule

Phases of Water

Phases of Carbon

Helium-3 Phase Diagram

Helium-4 Phase Diagram

QCD Phase Diagram

Superconducting Phase Transitions

High-Tc Superconductor Phase Diagram

Problems

The Clapeyron Equation

Clapeyron’s Original Treatment

More Modern Approaches

Freezing Curves

The Clausius-Clapeyron Approximation

Temperature Dependence of Latent Heats

Boiling Points of Dilute Solutions

Breakdown of the Clapeyron Equation

Magnetic Clapeyron Equation

Problems

The van der Waals Equation

Thermodynamic Aspects

Existence of Phases in the vdW System

Negative Pressures in vdW Systems

Surface Tension

Thermodynamics of Inhomogeneous Substances

Revisiting the Bubble Pressure

Problems

The Critical Point

Overview

Critical Properties of Water:data

Critical Behaviour of van der Waals Theory

Problems

Approach to Absolute Zero

Standard Methods of Refrigeration

Helium Cryostats

Dilution Refrigeration

Magnetic Cooling

Pomeranchuk Cooling

Problems

Entropy Constants

Gaseous Reactions

Entropy Constants for Solids

Two Experimental Verifications of the Sackur-Tetrode Formula

The Entropy Constants for Diatomic Gases

Problems

Some Mathematical Aspects of Thermodynamics

Introduction

Differentials and Derivatives

Jacobian Matrices and Jacobians

Differential Forms in Thermodynamics

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