Principles of Thermodynamics PDF Book

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Features

Provides detailed coverage of basic topics
Includes historical background
Broadens the scope of thermodynamics for teaching purposes
Supplies a reference for experts

Table of Contents

The Beginnings
Temperature and Thermometry
Ideal Gas Laws
Heat and Specific Heats
Sadi Carnot and the Motive Power of Heat
Steam Engines and the Clapeyron Equation
Problems

First Law—The E = Mc2 of Thermodynamics
The Fall of the Caloric
The Path to the First Law
The First Law of Thermodynamics
Some Applications of the First Law
Problems
Suggested Reading for This Book in General

The Second and Third Laws
Perpetuum Mobiles
The Entropy Axiom: The First Part of the Second Law
Entropy Axiom and Universality of Carnot Cycles
Historical Formulations of the Second Law
Second Law and Irreversibility
An Absolute Scale of Temperature
Applications of the First and Second Laws
Third Law of Thermodynamics – the Nemst-Planck Postulate
Problems

Carnot Cycles – The Turing Machines of Thermodynamics
The Gas Carnot Cycles
The Steam Carnot Cycle
The Stirling Engine
The Otto Cycle
The Brayton Cycle
Carnot Cycle with Photons
Problems

Specific Heats Magnificent Bridges
A Brief History
Varieties of Specific Heats
Specific Heats and the Third Law
Specific Heats and Microscopics
Specific Heats Herald Quantum Theory!
Problems

Structure of Thermodynamic Theories
Extensive and Intensive Variables: General
The Fundamental Equations
True Equations of State
Multicomponent Systems
Entropy of Mixing and the Gibbs Paradox
Worked-Out Examples
Axiomatic Intensive Variables and Equilibrium
Problems

Thermodynamic Potentials and Maxwell Relations
Thermodynamic Potentials
Maxwell’s Relations
Problems

Magnetic Systems
Introduction
Thermodynamic Potentials
Problems

Dilute Solutions
General Considerations
Mixing Revisited
Osmotic Pressure
Vapor Pressure and Boiling Point Point of Solutions
Freezing Point of Dilute Solutions
Salt Water Phase Diagram
Problems

Phases and Their Equilibria
The Gibbs Phase Rule
Phases of Water
Phases of Carbon
Helium-3 Phase Diagram
Helium-4 Phase Diagram
QCD Phase Diagram
Superconducting Phase Transitions
High-Tc Superconductor Phase Diagram
Problems

The Clapeyron Equation
Clapeyron’s Original Treatment
More Modern Approaches
Freezing Curves
The Clausius-Clapeyron Approximation
Temperature Dependence of Latent Heats
Boiling Points of Dilute Solutions
Breakdown of the Clapeyron Equation
Magnetic Clapeyron Equation
Problems

The van der Waals Equation
Thermodynamic Aspects
Existence of Phases in the vdW System
Negative Pressures in vdW Systems
Surface Tension
Thermodynamics of Inhomogeneous Substances
Revisiting the Bubble Pressure
Problems

The Critical Point
Overview
Critical Properties of Water:data
Critical Behaviour of van der Waals Theory
Problems

Approach to Absolute Zero
Standard Methods of Refrigeration
Helium Cryostats
Dilution Refrigeration
Magnetic Cooling
Pomeranchuk Cooling
Problems

Entropy Constants
Gaseous Reactions
Entropy Constants for Solids
Two Experimental Verifications of the Sackur-Tetrode Formula
The Entropy Constants for Diatomic Gases
Problems

Some Mathematical Aspects of Thermodynamics
Introduction
Differentials and Derivatives
Jacobian Matrices and Jacobians
Differential Forms in Thermodynamics

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