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Biology By Raven Johnson :: Connect: A highly reliable, easy-to-use homework and learning management solution that embeds learning science and award-winning adaptive tools to improve student results. An emphasis on evolution and scientific inquiry have made this a leading textbook for students majoring in biology. This emphasis on the organizing power of evolution is combined with an integration of the importance of cellular, molecular biology and genomics to offer our readers a text that is both student friendly and current.

Dedicated to Excellence within the Eleventh Version. This version continues the evolution of Raven & Johnson’s Biology. The writer workforce is dedicated to repeatedly enhancing the textual content, preserving the coed and studying foremost. The built-in pedagogical options increase the scholars’ studying course of and improve their studying expertise. This newest version of the textual content maintains the clear, accessible, and fascinating writing fashion of previous editions with the stable framework of pedagogy that highlights an emphasis on evolution and scientific inquiry which have made this a number one textbook for college kids majoring in biology. This emphasis on the organizing energy of evolution is mixed with an integration of the significance of mobile, molecular biology and genomics to supply our readers a textual content that’s scholar pleasant and present.
Our writer workforce is dedicated to producing the absolute best textual content for each scholar and school. The lead writer, Kenneth Mason, College of Iowa, has taught majors biology at three completely different main public universities for greater than fifteen years. Jonathan Losos, Harvard College, is on the slicing fringe of evolutionary biology analysis, and Susan Singer, Carleton Faculty, has been concerned in science schooling coverage points on a nationwide degree. All three authors deliver diverse educational and content material experience to this version of Biology.

Title: Biology
Author(s): Peter H. Raven, George B. Johnson, Kenneth A. Mason, Jonathan Losos, Tod Duncan
Publisher: McGraw-Hill College
Year: 2019 Edition: 12
Language: English Pages: 1472\1472
ISBN: 1260494705, 9781260494709
Size: 523 MB (548450673 bytes) Extension: pdf
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Biology By Raven Johnson

Book Description:

The Raven & Johnson’s Biology author team is committed to continually improving the text, keeping the student and learning foremost. The integrated pedagogical features expand the students’ learning process and enhance their learning experience. This latest edition of the text maintains the clear, accessible, and engaging writing style of past editions with the solid framework of pedagogy that highlights an emphasis on evolution and scientific inquiry that have made this a leading textbook for students majoring in biology. This emphasis on the organizing power of evolution is combined with an integration of the importance of cellular, molecular biology and genomics to offer our readers a text that is student friendly and current.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Cover
Title
Copyright
Brief Contents
Contents
Committed to Excellence
Preparing Students for the Future
Part I: The Molecular Basisof Life
1 The Science of Biology
1.1 The Science of Life
1.2 The Nature of Science
1.3 An Example of Scientific Inquiry: Darwin and Evolution
1.4 Core Concepts in Biology
2 The Nature of Molecules and the Properties of Water
2.1 The Nature of Atoms
2.2 Elements Found in Living Systems
2.3 The Nature of Chemical Bonds
2.4 Water: A Vital Compound
2.5 Properties of Water
2.6 Acids and Bases
3 The Chemical Building Blocks of Life
3.1 Carbon: The Framework of Biological Molecules
3.2 Carbohydrates: Energy Storage and Structural Molecules
3.3 Nucleic Acids: Information Molecules
3.4 Proteins: Molecules with Diverse Structures and Functions
3.5 Lipids: Hydrophobic Molecules
Part II: Biology of the Cell
4 Cell Structure
4.1 Cell Theory
4.2 Prokaryotic Cells
4.3 Eukaryotic Cells
4.4 The Endomembrane System
4.5 Mitochondria and Chloroplasts: Cellular Generators
4.6 The Cytoskeleton
4.7 Extracellular Structures and Cell Movement
4.8 Cell-to-Cell Interactions
5 Membranes
5.1 The Structure of Membranes
5.2 Phospholipids: The Membrane’s Foundation
5.3 Proteins: Multifunctional Components
5.4 Passive Transport Across Membranes
5.5 Active Transport Across Membranes
5.6 Bulk Transport by Endocytosis and Exocytosis
6 Energy and Metabolism
6.1 The Flow of Energy in Living Systems
6.2 The Laws of Thermodynamics and Free Energy
6.3 ATP: The Energy Currency of Cells
6.4 Enzymes: Biological Catalysts
6.5 Metabolism: The Chemical Description of Cell Function
7 How Cells Harvest Energy
7.1 Overview of Respiration
7.2 Glycolysis: Splitting Glucose
7.3 The Oxidation of Pyruvate Produces Acetyl-CoA
7.4 The Citric Acid Cycle
7.5 The Electron Transport Chain and Chemiosmosis
7.6 Energy Yield of Aerobic Respiration
7.7 Regulation of Aerobic Respiration
7.8 Oxidation Without O2
7.9 Catabolism of Proteins and Fats
7.10 Evolution of Metabolism
8 Photosynthesis
8.1 Overview of Photosynthesis
8.2 The Discovery of Photosynthetic Processes
8.3 Pigments
8.4 Photosystem Organization
8.5 The Light-Dependent Reactions
8.6 Carbon Fixation: The Calvin Cycle
8.7 Photorespiration
9 Cell Communication
9.1 Overview of Cell Communication
9.2 Receptor Types
9.3 Intracellular Receptors
9.4 Signal Transduction Through Receptor Kinases
9.5 Signal Transduction Through G Protein–Coupled Receptors
10 How Cells Divide
10.1 Bacterial Cell Division
10.2 Eukaryotic Chromosomes
10.3 Overview of the Eukaryotic Cell Cycle
10.4 Interphase: Preparation for Mitosis
10.5 M Phase: Chromosome Segregation and the Division of Cytoplasmic Contents
10.6 Control of the Cell Cycle
10.7 Genetics of Cancer
Part III: Genetic and Molecular Biology
11 Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis
11.1 Sexual Reproduction Requires Meiosis
11.2 Features of Meiosis
11.3 The Process of Meiosis
11.4 Summing Up: Meiosis Versus Mitosis
12 Patterns of Inheritance
12.1 The Mystery of Heredity
12.2 Monohybrid Crosses: The Principle of Segregation
12.3 Dihybrid Crosses: The Principle of Independent Assortment
12.4 Probability: Predicting the Results of Crosses
12.5 The Testcross: Revealing Unknown Genotypes
12.6 Extensions to Mendel
13 Chromosomes, Mapping, and the Meiosis–Inheritance Connection
13.1 Sex Linkage and the Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance
13.2 Sex Chromosomes and Sex Determination
13.3 Exceptions to the Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance
13.4 Genetic Mapping
13.5 Human Genetic Disorders
14 DNA: The Genetic Material
14.1 The Nature of the Genetic Material
14.2 DNA Structure
14.3 Basic Characteristics of DNA Replication
14.4 Prokaryotic Replication
14.5 Eukaryotic Replication
14.6 DNA Repair
15 Genes and How They Work
15.1 The Nature of Genes
15.2 The Genetic Code
15.3 Prokaryotic Transcription
15.4 Eukaryotic Transcription
15.5 Eukaryotic pre-mRNA Splicing
15.6 The Structure of tRNA and Ribosomes
15.7 The Process of Translation
15.8 Summarizing Gene Expression
15.9 Mutation: Altered Genes
16 Control of Gene Expression
16.1 Control of Gene Expression
16.2 Regulatory Proteins
16.3 Prokaryotic Regulation
16.4 Eukaryotic Regulation
16.5 Chromatin Structure Affects Gene Expression
16.6 Eukaryotic Posttranscriptional Regulation
16.7 Protein Degradation
17 Biotechnology
17.1 Recombinant DNA
17.2 Amplifying DNA Using the Polymerase Chain Reaction
17.3 Creating, Correcting, and Analyzing Genetic Variation
17.4 Constructing and Using Transgenic Organisms
17.5 Environmental Applications
17.6 Medical Applications
17.7 Agricultural Applications
18 Genomics
18.1 Mapping Genomes
18.2 Sequencing Genomes
18.3 Genome Projects
18.4 Genome Annotation and Databases
18.5 Comparative and Functional Genomics
18.6 Applications of Genomics
19 Cellular Mechanisms of Development
19.1 The Process of Development
19.2 Cell Division
19.3 Cell Differentiation
19.4 Nuclear Reprogramming
19.5 Pattern Formation
19.6 Evolution of Pattern Formation
19.7 Morphogenesis
Part IV: Evolution
20 Genes Within Populations
20.1 Genetic Variation and Evolution
20.2 Changes in Allele Frequency
20.3 Five Agents of Evolutionary Change
20.4 Quantifying Natural Selection
20.5 Reproductive Strategies
20.6 Natural Selection’s Role in Maintaining Variation
20.7 Selection Acting on Traits Affected by Multiple Genes
20.8 Experimental Studies of Natural Selection
20.9 Interactions Among Evolutionary Forces
20.10 The Limits of Selection
21 The Evidence for Evolution
21.1 The Beaks of Darwin’s Finches: Evidence of Natural Selection
21.2 Peppered Moths and Industrial Melanism: More Evidence of Selection
21.3 Artificial Selection: Human-Initiated Change
21.4 Fossil Evidence of Evolution
21.5 Anatomical Evidence for Evolution
21.6 Convergent Evolution and the Biogeographical Record
21.7 Darwin’s Critics
22 The Origin of Species
22.1 The Nature of Species and the Biological Species Concept
22.2 Natural Selection and Reproductive Isolation
22.3 The Role of Genetic Drift and Natural Selection in Speciation
22.4 The Geography of Speciation
22.5 Adaptive Radiation and Biological Diversity
22.6 The Pace of Evolution
22.7 Speciation and Extinction Through Time
23 Systematics, Phylogenies, and Comparative Biology
23.1 Systematics
23.2 Cladistics
23.3 Systematics and Classification
23.4 Phylogenetics and Comparative Biology
23.5 Phylogenetics and Disease Evolution
24 Genome Evolution
24.1 Comparative Genomics
24.2 Genome Size
24.3 Evolution Within Genomes
24.4 Gene Function and Expression Patterns
24.5 Applying Comparative Genomics
Part V: Diversity of Life
25 The Origin and Diversity of Life
25.1 Deep Time
25.2 Origins of Life
25.3 Evidence for Early Life
25.4 Earth’s Changing System
25.5 Ever-Changing Life on Earth
26 Viruses
26.1 The Nature of Viruses
26.2 Viral Diversity
26.3 Bacteriophage: Bacterial Viruses
26.4 Viral Diseases of Humans
26.5 Prions and Viroids: Infectious Subviral Particles
27 Prokaryotes
27.1 Prokaryotic Diversity
27.2 Prokaryotic Cell Structure
27.3 Prokaryotic Genetics
27.4 The Metabolic Diversity of Prokaryotes
27.5 Microbial Ecology
27.6 Bacterial Diseases of Humans
28 Protists
28.1 Eukaryotic Origins and Endosymbiosis
28.2 Overview of Protists
28.3 Characteristics of the Excavata
28.4 Characteristics of the Chromalveolata
28.5 Characteristics of the Rhizaria
28.6 Characteristics of the Archaeplastida
28.7 Characteristics of the Amoebozoa
28.8 Characteristics of the Opisthokonta
29 Seedless Plants
29.1 Origin of Land Plants
29.2 Bryophytes Have a Dominant Gametophyte Generation
29.3 Tracheophytes Have a Dominant Sporophyte Generation
29.4 Lycophytes Diverged from the Main Lineage of Vascular Plants
29.5 Pterophytes Are the Ferns and Their Relatives
30 Seed Plants
30.1 The Evolution of Seed Plants
30.2 Gymnosperms: Plants with “Naked Seeds”
30.3 Angiosperms: The Flowering Plants
30.4 Seeds
30.5 Fruits
31 Fungi
31.1 Classification of Fungi
31.2 Fungal Forms, Nutrition, and Reproduction
31.3 Fungal Ecology
31.4 Fungal Parasites and Pathogens
31.5 Basidiomycota: The Club (Basidium) Fungi
31.6 Ascomycota: The Sac (Ascus) Fungi
31.7 Glomeromycota: Asexual Plant Symbionts
31.8 Zygomycota: Zygote-Producing Fungi
31.9 Chytridiomycota and Relatives: Fungi with Zoospores
31.10 Microsporidia: Unicellular Parasites
32 Animal Diversity and the Evolution of Body Plans
32.1 Some General Features of Animals
32.2 Evolution of the Animal Body Plan
32.3 Animal Phylogeny
32.4 Parazoa: Animals That Lack Specialized Tissues
32.5 Eumetazoa: Animals with True Tissues
32.6 The Bilateria
33 Protostomes
33.1 The Clades of Protostomes
33.2 Flatworms (Platyhelminthes)
33.3 Rotifers (Rotifera)
33.4 Mollusks (Mollusca)
33.5 Ribbon Worms (Nemertea)
33.6 Annelids (Annelida)
33.7 Bryozoans (Bryozoa) and Brachiopods (Brachiopoda)
33.8 Roundworms (Nematoda)
33.9 Arthropods (Arthropoda)
34 Deuterostomes
34.1 Echinoderms
34.2 Chordates
34.3 Nonvertebrate Chordates
34.4 Vertebrate Chordates
34.5 Fishes
34.6 Amphibians
34.7 Reptiles
34.8 Birds
34.9 Mammals
34.10 Evolution of the Primates
Part VI: Plant Form and Function
35 Plant Form
35.1 Organization of the Plant Body: An Overview
35.2 Plant Tissues
35.3 Roots: Anchoring and Absorption Structures
35.4 Stems: Support for Above-Ground Organs
35.5 Leaves: Photosynthetic Organs
36 Transport in Plants
36.1 Transport Mechanisms
36.2 Water and Mineral Absorption
36.3 Xylem Transport
36.4 Rate of Transpiration
36.5 Water-Stress Responses
36.6 Phloem Transport
37 Plant Nutrition and Soils
37.1 Soils: The Substrates on Which Plants Depend
37.2 Plant Nutrients
37.3 Special Nutritional Strategies
37.4 Carbon–Nitrogen Balance and Global Change
37.5 Phytoremediation
38 Plant Defense Responses
38.1 Physical Defenses
38.2 Chemical Defenses
38.3 Animals That Protect Plants
38.4 Systemic Responses to Invaders
39 Sensory Systems in Plants
39.1 Responses to Light
39.2 Responses to Gravity
39.3 Responses to Mechanical Stimuli
39.4 Responses to Water and Temperature
39.5 Hormones and Sensory Systems
40 Plant Reproduction
40.1 Reproductive Development
40.2 Making Flowers
40.3 Structure and Evolution of Flowers
40.4 Pollination and Fertilization
40.5 Embryo Development
40.6 Germination
40.7 Asexual Reproduction
40.8 Plant Life Spans
Part VII: Animal Form and Function
41 The Animal Body and Principles of Regulation
41.1 Organization of Animal Bodies
41.2 Epithelial Tissue
41.3 Connective Tissue
41.4 Muscle Tissue
41.5 Nerve Tissue
41.6 Overview of Vertebrate Organ Systems
41.7 Homeostasis
41.8 Regulating Body Temperature
42 The Nervous System
42.1 Nervous System Organization
42.2 The Mechanism of Nerve Impulse Transmission
42.3 Synapses: Where Neurons Communicate with Other Cells
42.4 The Central Nervous System: Brain and Spinal Cord
42.5 The Peripheral Nervous System: Spinal and Cranial Nerves
43 Sensory Systems
43.1 Overview of Sensory Receptors
43.2 Thermoreceptors, Nociceptors, and Electromagnetic Receptors: Temperature, Pain, and Magnetic Fields
43.3 Mechanoreceptors I: Touch, Pressure, and Body Position
43.4 Mechanoreceptors II: Hearing, Vibration, and Balance
43.5 Chemoreceptors: Taste, Smell, and pH
43.6 Vision
43.7 Evolution and Development of Eyes
44 The Endocrine System
44.1 Regulation of Body Processes by Chemical Messengers
44.2 Overview of Hormone Action
44.3 The Pituitary and Hypothalamus: The Body’s Control Centers
44.4 The Major Peripheral Endocrine Glands
44.5 Other Hormones and Their Effects
45 The Musculoskeletal System
45.1 Types of Skeletal Systems
45.2 A Closer Look at Bone
45.3 Joints
45.4 Muscle Contraction
45.5 Vertebrate Skeleton Evolution and Modes of Locomotion
46 The Digestive System
46.1 Types of Digestive Systems
46.2 The Mouth and Teeth: Food Capture and Bulk Processing
46.3 The Esophagus and the Stomach: The Early Stages of Digestion
46.4 The Intestines: Breakdown, Absorption, and Elimination
46.5 Accessory Organ Function
46.6 Neural and Hormonal Regulation of the Digestive Tract
46.7 Food Energy, Energy Expenditure, and Essential Nutrients
46.8 Variations in Vertebrate Digestive Systems
47 The Respiratory System
47.1 Gas Exchange Across Respiratory Surfaces
47.2 Gills, Cutaneous Respiration, and Tracheal Systems
47.3 Lungs
47.4 Structures, Mechanisms, and Control of Ventilation in Mammals
47.5 Transport of Gases in Body Fluids
48 The Circulatory System
48.1 Invertebrate Circulatory Systems
48.2 The Components of Vertebrate Blood
48.3 Vertebrate Circulatory Systems
48.4 Cardiac Cycle, Electrical Conduction, ECG, and Cardiac Output
48.5 Blood Pressure and Blood Vessels
49 Osmotic Regulation and the Urinary System
49.1 Osmolarity and Osmotic Balance
49.2 Nitrogenous Wastes: Ammonia, Urea, and Uric Acid
49.3 Osmoregulatory Organs
49.4 Evolution of the Vertebrate Kidney
49.5 The Mammalian Kidney
49.6 Hormonal Control of Osmoregulatory Functions
50 The Immune System
50.1 Innate Immunity
50.2 Adaptive Immunity
50.3 Cell-Mediated Immunity
50.4 Humoral Immunity and Antibody Production
50.5 Autoimmunity and Hypersensitivity
50.6 Antibodies in Medical Treatment and Diagnosis
50.7 Pathogens That Evade the Immune System
51 The Reproductive System
51.1 Animal Reproductive Strategies
51.2 Vertebrate Fertilization and Development
51.3 Structure and Function of the Human Male Reproductive System
51.4 Structure and Function of the Human Female Reproductive System
51.5 Contraception and Infertility Treatments
52 Animal Development
52.1 Fertilization
52.2 Cleavage and the Blastula Stage
52.3 Gastrulation
52.4 Organogenesis
52.5 Vertebrate Axis and Pattern Formation
52.6 Human Development
Part VIII: Ecology and Behavior
53 Behavioral Biology
53.1 The Natural History of Behavior
53.2 Nerve Cells, Neurotransmitters, Hormones, and Behavior
53.3 Behavioral Genetics
53.4 Learning
53.5 The Development of Behavior
53.6 Animal Cognition
53.7 Orientation and Migratory Behavior
53.8 Animal Communication
53.9 Behavior and Evolution
53.10 Behavioral Ecology
53.11 Reproductive Strategies
53.12 Altruism
53.13 The Evolution of Group Living and Animal Societies
54 Ecology of Individuals and Populations
54.1 The Environmental Challenges
54.2 Populations: Groups of a Single Species in One Place
54.3 Population Demography and Dynamics
54.4 Life History and the Cost of Reproduction
54.5 Environmental Limits to Population Growth
54.6 Factors That Regulate Populations
54.7 Human Population Growth
55 Community Ecology
55.1 Biological Communities: Species Living Together
55.2 The Ecological Niche Concept
55.3 Predator–Prey Relationships
55.4 The Many Types of Species Interactions
55.5 Ecological Succession, Disturbance, and Species Richness
56 Dynamics of Ecosystems
56.1 Biogeochemical Cycles
56.2 The Flow of Energy in Ecosystems
56.3 Trophic-Level Interactions
56.4 Biodiversity and Ecosystem Stability
56.5 Island Biogeography
57 The Biosphere and Human Impacts
57.1 Ecosystem Effects of Sun, Wind, and Water
57.2 Earth’s Biomes
57.3 Freshwater Habitats
57.4 Marine Habitats
57.5 Human Impacts on the Biosphere: Pollution and Resource Depletion
57.6 Human Impacts on the Biosphere: Climate Change
58 Conservation Biology
58.1 Overview of the Biodiversity Crisis
58.2 The Value of Biodiversity
58.3 Factors Responsible for Extinction
58.4 An Evolutionary Perspective on the Biodiversity Crisis
58.5 Approaches for Preserving Endangered Species and Ecosystems
Appendix
Glossary

 

Biology

Author(s): Peter H. Raven, George B. Johnson, Kenneth A. Mason, Jonathan Losos, Tod Duncan

Publisher: McGraw-Hill College, Year: 2019

ISBN: 1260494705

 

Biology By Raven Johnson PDF

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