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IoT and Low-Power Wireless Circuits Architectures and Techniques
Editor of IoT and Low-Power Wireless Circuits Architectures and Techniques
Siu is a school member on the Division of Electrical and Laptop Engineering Expertise, British Columbia Institute of Expertise (BCIT), situated in Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada.
Chris can also be a founding father of Wavelink Electronics Ltd. and Tyche Applied sciences Inc., consulting firms specializing within the design of analog and radio frequency electronics.
He obtained a grasp’s diploma from Stanford College, California, and a bachelor’s diploma from Simon Fraser College, British Columbia, each in electrical engineering.
Chris can also be a licensed skilled engineer within the province of British Columbia. Throughout his profession, Chris has labored in Silicon Valley and in Canada, for firms equivalent to Hewlett Packard, Philips Semiconductor, and PMC-Sierra.
He has designed analog and RF built-in circuits which were launched to manufacturing in addition to managed engineering groups throughout a number of websites. When not educating or training engineering, he likes to spend his time snowboarding, enjoying tennis and touring.
IoT and Low-Power Wireless Contents
- The Web of Issues Bodily and Hyperlink Layers Overview
- Low-Power Wearable and Wireless Sensors for Superior Healthcare Monitoring
- Biomedical Algorithms for Wearable Monitoring
- Approaches and Techniques for Upkeep and Operation of Multisink Wireless Sensor Networks
- Power-Environment friendly Communication Options Primarily based on Wake-Up Receivers
- All-Digital Noise-Shaping Time-to-Digital Converters for Combined-Mode Sign Processing
- Energy-Environment friendly CMOS Energy Amplifiers for Wireless Purposes
- Injection-Locking Techniques in Low-Power Wireless Techniques
- Low-Power RF Digital PLLs with Direct Service Modulation
- Frequency Synthesis Method for 60 GHz Multi-Gbps Wireless
- 60 GHz Multiuser Gigabit/s Wireless Techniques Primarily based on IEEE 802.11advert/WiGig
- Adaptive and Environment friendly Built-in Energy Administration Buildings for Inductive Energy Supply
Preface to IoT and Low-Power Wireless Circuits Architectures and Techniques
Someday sooner or later, we might look again and replicate that we live in instances throughout which a novel confluence of applied sciences is creating a brand new paradigm for networked gadgets, generally known as the web of issues (IoT).
The concept behind IoT dates again to the 1990s when Kevin Ashton was a model supervisor at Proctor & Gamble (P&G).
In 1997, Ashton and his workforce had been tasked with selling Oil of Olay lipsticks. When Ashton observed that some retail shops weren’t stocked with the product, he realized that human information entry for restocking the lipstick is unreliable.
He thus got here up with the thought of taking the Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) chip out of a contactless sensible card and attaching one to every lipstick to trace retailer stock. Ashton then prolonged this concept and pitched an answer to resolve P&G’s provide chain downside to the executives.
Though the worth of RFID tags was nonetheless prohibitive at the moment, Ashton was satisfied that in the future the worth will drop sufficient for this concept to be economically possible. P&G executives funded the analysis venture, and Ashton finally turned the manager director of the Massachusetts Institute of Expertise (MIT)’s Auto-ID Middle, the place he was in a position to additional his imaginative and prescient.
In the present day, roughly 20 years after Ashton’s thought, we’re in a position to see his IoT idea coming to fruition. The convergence and development of a number of applied sciences have made this doable, together with
- Sensor and actuator know-how
- Wireless know-how
- Computational energy and community protocol
- Miniaturization of gadgets, with built-in circuit know-how using Moore’s legislation to the restrict
The chapters on this e book cowl a few of the wi-fi analysis that can allow the implementation of IoT. The e book additionally seems to be forward at superior wi-fi methods that can proceed the evolution in ubiquitous wi-fi communication.
Chapter 1: This chapter gives an summary of IoT, specializing in the applied sciences deployed for the bodily and hyperlink layers. Rising requirements for IoT are additionally outlined.
Chapter 2: Low-power wearables have entered into the mainstream shopper market, with health gadgets that monitor train and coronary heart charge being probably the most prevalent.
This chapter explores the utilization of wearables within the medical market and the challenges that include designing sensors and electronics for such gadgets.
Chapter 3: The problem of wearable medical monitoring is additional explored within the context of algorithms and firmware.
Algorithms that may reliably interpret the physiological and biomechanical indicators, derive metrics from them and predict clinically important occasions are one of many keys to success on this market.
Chapter 4: Connecting quite a few gadgets right into a wi-fi sensor community is the main target of this chapter. Distributed versus centralized architectures are mentioned, together with methods that may enhance the effectivity and robustness of the community.
Chapter 5: A key approach for IoT gadgets to run years on a single battery is to place the receiver to sleep for as lengthy and as typically as doable.
This chapter addresses this necessary challenge with the wake-up receiver methodology to realize energy-efficient communication.
Chapter 6: As Complementary Steel Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) course of scaling continues and the availability voltage continues to shrink, voltage decision and dynamic vary in analog circuits additionally deteriorate.
Over the previous decade, engineers have adjusted their design technique by benefiting from the time decision of CMOS, ensuing within the time-to-digital converter (TDC). Numerous improvements have been developed for TDCs, and this chapter presents an all-digital TDC structure with delta-sigma noise shaping.
Chapter 7: The ability amplifier is likely one of the power-hungry blocks inside a Radio Frequency (RF) transmitter.
The purpose of attaining excessive effectivity and excessive linearity is a continuing design problem. On this chapter, a scientific design approach is offered, together with the evaluation of a present mode digital RF energy amplifier incorporating predistortion.
Chapter 8: Frequency synthesis utilizing a phase-locked loop (PLL) is one other power-hungry operate inside an RF transceiver. Throughout the PLL, the voltage-controlled oscillator and frequency divider consumes a lot of the facility.
In consequence, injection locking has been studied to scale back energy consumption, and this chapter gives an evaluation of assorted injection-locked methods.
Chapter 9: The Cartesian In-Part and Quadrature (I/Q) modulator pushed by a PLL has been a traditional structure utilized in RF transmitters, however the want for RF mixers and filters has offered challenges in deep-submicron CMOS.
Over the previous decade, environment friendly digital transmitter architectures that keep away from the usage of mixers and filters have gained traction. On this chapter, the usage of highly effective digital calibration methods in a direct modulation PLL has enabled additional efficiency beneficial properties.
Chapter 10: Because the spectra at 2.4 and 5 GHz have develop into very crowded, engineers are larger frequencies for future deployment.
WiGig is one instance of shifting WiFi to the 60 GHz band for enabling multi-Gbps wi-fi communication.
Techniques for frequency synthesis at 60 GHz are mentioned on this chapter. An injection-locked 60 GHz oscillator is used along with a subsampling PLL to realize low-power and low-phase noise.
The implementation of those methods in 65-nm CMOS is offered together with the measured outcomes.
Chapter 11: Fifth-generation wi-fi is presently underneath definition and growth, and one consideration is the mixing of IoT into the community.
Heterogeneous architectures have been proposed, the place Wireless Native Space Community (WLAN) is utilized in dense small cells. The newest standing of IEEE 802.11advert/WiGig within the 60 GHz band is offered on this chapter, together with a low-power CMOS transceiver with beamforming functionality.
Chapter 12: Battery life has all the time been a key challenge in moveable gadgets, and it has develop into essential for IoT as it’s impractical to exchange the battery in billions of gadgets recurrently.
Whereas the sooner chapters targeted on circuit methods and protocol improvements to increase the battery life, this chapter seems to be at ways in which we will recharge the battery with out person intervention.
Whereas power scavenging has been thought-about for IoT nodes, wi-fi charging has additionally made its method into the patron market.
This chapter presents an environment friendly energy administration construction for inductive energy supply and its purposes in markets equivalent to implantable medical gadgets.