|Guide Particulars :|
Transformer Engineering Design Technology and Diagnostics Second Version by S.V. Kulkarni and S.A. Khaparde
Just a few enhancements have been integrated within the different chapters as nicely. Understanding the fundamentals of electromagnetic fields is an important prerequisite for doing superior computations. Chapter 12 explains the sector idea related to transformer engineering in a easy method. Ideas from vector algebra and vector calculus are first defined adopted by corresponding examples which assist perceive the habits and distribution of fields inside transformers. Properties of insulating and magnetic supplies utilized in transformers are defined from a elementary electromagnetic perspective. Finite aspect technique (FEM) is broadly used for evaluation and optimization of transformers.
Whereas utilizing industrial software program, the data of the FEM idea helps researchers and training engineers resolve complicated issues and simply interpret discipline options. The idea of FEM is defined via the answer of one-dimensional and two-dimensional issues that characterize typical electrostatic and magnetostatic fields encountered in transformers. After explaining static, time-harmonic and transient formulations, superior coupled discipline computations involving electromagnetic fields and exterior networks/different bodily fields are elaborated. Temporary idea/procedures for coping with hysteresis and magnetization/magnetostrictive forces are additionally given on the finish.
The second new chapter covers related idea and explanations required for understanding the consequences of transformer–system interactions. The chapter begins with the modeling elements of transformers important for steady-state evaluation of energy techniques. The usefulness of magnitude-regulating and phaseshifting transformers is demonstrated via examples. The part on harmonics briefly covers their sources and results, adopted by modeling methods for analyzing them. Ferroresonance phenomena may be detrimental to transformers; the system circumstances inflicting ferroresonant circumstances are enumerated.
Opposed results of arc-furnace masses and geomagnetic disturbances are defined later. Inside resonances as a result of system transients together with very quick transient overvoltages are additionally described. Results of switching operations involving vacuum circuit breakers on distribution transformers are highlighted. On the finish, low-, mid-, and high-frequency fashions of transformers used for transient research/investigative evaluation are elaborated. A substantial quantity of analysis and improvement efforts by the educational neighborhood, utility engineers, and transformer specialists have led to the supply of superior diagnostic instruments. After summarizing typical checks on oil and windings.
The chapter Monitoring and Diagnostics comprehensively covers methods for detecting partial discharges (PD), insulation degradation, and winding displacements/deformations. Strategies based mostly on electrical, acoustic, and extremely excessive frequency alerts are practiced for PD diagnostics. Dielectric response strategies used for the situation evaluation of insulation are categorized into time area and frequency area strategies. Background idea for understanding these two sorts of approaches is described together with diagnostic procedures.
Lastly, frequency response evaluation, used broadly for detection of winding irregularities, is completely defined. Thus, the main target of the second version can be on diagnostic elements and transformer–system interactions, and subsequently, it’s anticipated to assist readers comprehend operational/upkeep points and options along with the intricacies of transformer design and the purposes of superior numerical discipline computations.
Switching in Electrical Transmission and Distribution Systems PDF
Author(s): René Smeets, Lou van der Sluis, Mirsad Kapetanovic, David F. Peelo, Anton Janssen
Publisher: Wiley, Year: 2014
Switching in Electrical Transmission and Distribution Systems presents the issues and technological solutions associated with switching in power systems, from medium to ultra-high voltage.
The book systematically discusses the electrical aspects of switching, details the way load and fault currents are interrupted, the impact of fault currents, and compares switching equipment in particular circuit-breakers. The authors also explain all examples of practical switching phenomena by examining real measurements from switching tests.
Other highlights include: up to date commentary on new developments in transmission and distribution technology such as ultra-high voltage systems, vacuum switchgear for high-voltage, generator circuit-breakers, distributed generation, DC-interruption, aspects of cable systems, disconnector switching, very fast transients, and circuit-breaker reliability studies.
– Summarises the issues and technological solutions associated with the switching of currents in transmission and distribution systems.
– Introduces and explains recent developments such as vacuum switchgear for transmission systems, SF6 environmental consequences and alternatives, and circuit-breaker testing.
– Provides practical guidance on how to deal with unacceptable switching transients.
– Details the worldwide IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) standards on switching equipment, illustrating current circuit-breaker applications.
– Features many figures and tables originating from full-power tests and established training courses, or from measurements in real networks.
– Focuses on practical and application issues relevant to practicing engineers.
– Essential reading for electrical engineers, utility engineers, power system application engineers, consultants and power systems asset managers, postgraduates and final year power system undergraduates.
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