Biological Control of Tropical Weeds using Arthropods by Rangaswamy and Reddy :: In the past few decades, globalization and increased trade and transportation have contributed to the rapid spread of plants, many of which have now become weeds in the
introduced regions. Weeds are a major constraint to agricultural production, particularly in the developing world. Cost-efficient biological control is a self-sustaining way to reduce this problem, and produces fewer non-target effects than chemical methods, which can cause serious damage to the environment.
This book covers the origin, distribution, and ecology of 20 model invasive weed species, which occur in habitats from tropical to aquatic. Sustainable biological control of
each weed using one or more arthropods is discussed. The aim is to provide ecological management models for use across the tropical world, and to assist in the assessment of
potential risks to native and economic plants. This is a valuable resource for scientiss and policy makers concerned with the biological control of invasive tropical plants.
biological control of tropical weeds using arthropods pdf

Biological Control of Tropical Weeds using Arthropods by Rangaswamy and Reddy

Title: Biological Control of Tropical Weeds using Arthropods
Editor: Rangaswamy Muniappan
Gadi V. P. Reddy
Anantanarayanan Raman
Edition: 1st
Publisher: Cambridge Press
Length: 509 pages
Size: 6.43 MB
Language: English

 

Biological Control of Tropical Weeds using Arthropods

Author(s): Rangaswamy Muniappan, Gadi V. P. Reddy, Anantanarayanan Raman

Publisher: Cambridge University Press, Year: 2009

ISBN: 0521877911

 

 

 

 

 

[PDF] Biological Control of Tropical Weeds using Arthropods by Rangaswamy and Reddy Table Of Contents

Half-title……Page 3
Title……Page 5
Copyright……Page 6
Contents……Page 7
Contributors……Page 9
Acknowledgments……Page 12
1.1 Introduction……Page 15
1.2 Management strategies……Page 20
1.3 Biological control……Page 21
1.4 Technology transfer……Page 22
1.5 Economics of biological control of weeds……Page 23
1.7 Sustainability……Page 25
1.8 Conclusion……Page 26
References……Page 27
2.1 Introduction……Page 31
2.2 Detrimental effects……Page 32
2.3 Beneficial effects……Page 33
2.4 Why biological control?……Page 34
2.5 Native-range studies……Page 35
2.6.1 Bruchidius sahlbergi Schilsky (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)……Page 38
2.6.3 Homichloda barkeri (Jacoby) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)……Page 39
2.6.6 Cometaster pyrula (Hopffer) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)……Page 40
2.7 Impact of biological control……Page 41
2.8.2 Genetic constraints……Page 42
2.9.1 Plant genotypes……Page 43
2.9.4 Field host range……Page 44
Acknowledgments……Page 45
References……Page 46
3.1 Introduction……Page 52
3.2 Biology of the invasive Australian Acacia species……Page 55
3.3 Conflicts of interest: the South African situation……Page 56
3.4.1 Acquired natural enemies……Page 58
3.5.1 The bud-galling wasps, Trichilogaster spp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)……Page 59
Trichilogaster acaciaelongifoliae Froggatt……Page 60
3.5.2 The leaf-spotting bug, Rayieria sp. (Hemiptera: Miridae)……Page 61
3.5.3 The seed-feeding weevils, Melanterius species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)……Page 62
Dasineura dielsi Rubsaamen on A. cyclops……Page 64
3.6 The seed-feeding wasps Bruchophagus species Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae)……Page 66
3.7 Impacts of seed-reducing agents against invasive tree species……Page 67
References……Page 69
4.1 Introduction……Page 77
4.2.1 Biology of Procecidochares utilis……Page 79
4.2.2 Gall development……Page 80
4.2.4 Effect of parasitism on P. utilis……Page 81
Dihammus argentatus Auriv. (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)……Page 82
4.3 Biological control and the status of the weed……Page 83
References……Page 84
5.2 Taxonomy……Page 88
5.3 Plant biology……Page 89
5.5 Utilization……Page 90
5.6.3 Biological……Page 91
Stenoplemus Rufinasus Gyllenhal (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)……Page 92
Implementing biological control……Page 93
5.7 Economics of biological control efforts……Page 94
5.9 Conclusion……Page 98
References……Page 99
6.1 Introduction……Page 102
6.4.1 Biology of Cabomba caroliniana in its native range……Page 106
6.4.2 Biology in the introduced range……Page 109
6.4.3 Population dynamics……Page 111
6.4.5 Comparison between native and introduced ranges……Page 112
6.5 The Australian biological control project……Page 113
6.7.1 Hydrotimetes natans (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)……Page 114
6.7.2 Paracles sp. (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae)……Page 115
6.7.3 Paraponyx diminutalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)……Page 117
6.8 Conclusions……Page 118
References……Page 119
7.1 Introduction……Page 122
7.2 The cactus species targeted for biological control……Page 123
7.3.1 1796-1850. Projects that started the practice of biological control of invasive alien plants……Page 124
7.3.2 1900-1960: spectacular successes using biological control against cactus weeds……Page 129
7.3.3 More recent biological control programs against cactus weeds……Page 131
7.4.1 Taxonomy and species biotypes……Page 132
7.4.2 Research and evaluation……Page 133
7.4.3 Conflicts of interest……Page 134
7.4.4 Controversial biological control efforts against cactus weeds……Page 136
7.5 Conclusions……Page 137
References……Page 138
8.2 Taxonomy……Page 144
8.3 Morphology, biology, and phenology……Page 145
8.4.1 Chromolaena odorata in the neotropics……Page 146
8.4.2 Chromolaena odorata in the Old World……Page 148
8.4.3 Ecology and impacts……Page 149
8.5 Neotropical arthropods released on C. odorata in its invasive range……Page 151
8.6.1 Pareuchaetes pseudoinsulata Rego Barros (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae)……Page 153
8.6.2 Pareuchaetes insulata (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae)……Page 155
8.6.3 Cecidochares connexa Macquart (Diptera: Tephritidae)……Page 156
8.6.4 Actinote species (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)……Page 157
8.7 Other arthropod agents……Page 158
8.7.3 Pareuchaetes aurata aurata (Butler) (Arctiidae)……Page 159
8.9 Economics of biological control efforts……Page 160
8.10.1 Biological control of C. odorata in PNG……Page 163
8.10.2 Biological control of C. odorata in South Africa……Page 164
8.12 Conclusions……Page 165
References……Page 166
9.1 Introduction……Page 177
9.3 Clidemia hirta as a natural area pest……Page 178
Liothrips urichi Karny (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae)……Page 179
Carposina bullata Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae)……Page 180
Lius poseidon Napp.(Coleoptera: Buprestidae)……Page 181
9.5 Biotic interference……Page 182
9.6 Current status of C. hirta……Page 183
9.8 Environmental and economic sustainability……Page 184
References……Page 185
10.1 Introduction……Page 189
10.3 Biological control……Page 190
10.3.2 Acythopeus cocciniae O’Brien and Pakaluk (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)……Page 191
Host-specificity studies……Page 192
10.5 Efficacy of the agents……Page 194
References……Page 195
11.2 Taxonomy……Page 197
11.4 Biology and ecology……Page 198
11.6 Impact……Page 201
11.8 Control……Page 202
Neochetina eichhorniae and N. bruchi (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)……Page 204
Orthogalumna terebrantis (Acarina: Galumnidae)……Page 205
Xubida infusella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)……Page 206
11.8.3 New agents……Page 207
11.9 Limitations to successful biocontrol of E. crassipes……Page 209
11.11 Conclusions……Page 216
References……Page 217
12.1 Introduction……Page 225
12.3 Distribution of Lantana camara……Page 226
12.5 Ecology……Page 228
12.6 Impact of lantana……Page 230
12.8 Biological control of lantana……Page 231
12.8.2 Ophiomyia lantanae (Froggatt) (Diptera: Agromyzidae)……Page 234
12.8.4 Octotoma scabripennis Guérin-Méneville (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)……Page 235
12.8.6 Other agents……Page 236
12.9 Ecological interactions and impact of agents……Page 239
12.10 Measures of efficiency of biological control……Page 240
12.10.2 Lantana taxonomy……Page 242
12.10.3 Variety of target weedy lantana……Page 243
12.10.4 Climate……Page 244
12.10.5 Plant biology……Page 245
12.10.7 Release techniques……Page 246
12.11 Economics of biological control efforts……Page 247
12.13 Future lantana biocontrol……Page 248
12.13.1 Selecting future lantana biological control agents……Page 249
12.13.2 New agents currently being considered for release……Page 250
12.13.4 Lantana biology and ecology……Page 251
References……Page 252
13.3 Ecology and biology……Page 261
13.4 Impact – weed status……Page 262
13.5 Control measures……Page 263
13.6.1 Heteropsylla spinulosa Muddiman, Hodkinson and Hollis (Hemiptera: Psylloideae)……Page 264
13.6.2 Psigida (= Psilopigida) walkeri Grote (Lepidoptera: Citheroniidae)……Page 265
13.7 Conclusion……Page 267
References……Page 268
14.1 Introduction……Page 270
14.3 Introduced biological control agents of M. pigra……Page 272
Neurostrota gunniella (Busck) (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae)……Page 273
Carmenta mimosa Eichlin and Passoa (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae)……Page 274
Coelocephalapion aculeatum (Fall) and Coelocephalapion pigrae Kissinger (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)……Page 275
Sibinia fastigiata Clark (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)……Page 276
Chlamisus mimosae Karren (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)……Page 277
Macaria pallidata Warren (Lepidoptera: Geometridae)……Page 278
Malacorhinus irregularis Jacoby (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)……Page 279
14.3.6 Overall impact of biological control agents of M. pigra……Page 280
14.4 Integrated management……Page 281
14.5 Opportunities for the future……Page 282
References……Page 283
15.1 Introduction……Page 288
15.2 Detrimental effects……Page 290
15.3 Why biological control?……Page 291
15.5 Biological control agents……Page 294
15.5.1 Epiblema strenuana Walker (Lepidoptera: Totricidae)……Page 296
15.5.2 Zygogramma bicolorata Pallister (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)……Page 297
15.5.3 Listronotus setosipennis (Hustache) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)……Page 300
15.5.4 Smicronyx lutulentus Dietz (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)……Page 302
15.5.6 Platphalonidia mystica (Razowski and Becker) (Lepidoptera: Totricidae)……Page 303
15.5.7 Carmenta nr. ithacae (Beutenmuller) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae)……Page 304
15.5.9 Bucculatrix parthenica Bradley (Lepidoptera: Bucculatricidae)……Page 305
15.5.11 Puccinia melampodii Dietel & Holway (Uredinales)……Page 306
15.6 Impact of biological control……Page 308
15.7 Nontarget damage……Page 309
15.8.2 Natural enemies……Page 311
15.8.3 Abiotic factors……Page 312
15.8.5 Genetic impediments……Page 315
15.9.2 Plant genotypic studies……Page 316
15.9.5 Field (ecological) host range……Page 317
References……Page 318
16.2 Passiflora mollissima, the plant……Page 333
16.2.1 Range in South America……Page 334
16.2.3 Taxonomy……Page 335
16.4 Selection of biological control agents……Page 336
16.5.2 Pyrausta perelegans Hampson (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)……Page 337
16.6.1 Zapriothrica sp., near salebrosa Wheeler (Diptera: Drosophilidae)……Page 338
16.6.4 Acrocercops sp. near pylonias Meyrick (Lepidotera: Gracillariidae)……Page 339
16.7.2 Agraulis vanilla (L.) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)……Page 340
16.8 Discussion……Page 341
References……Page 342
17.2 Description……Page 346
17.3 Biology……Page 347
17.5 Distribution and pest status……Page 348
17.6 Possible utilization and impact of Pistia stratiotes……Page 349
17.7 Management……Page 350
17.8 Phytophagous species associated with Pistia stratiotes……Page 351
17.8.1 Neohydronomus affinis Hustache (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)……Page 352
17.8.2 Spodoptera (Epipsammea) pectinicornis (Hampson) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)……Page 353
17.9.1 Neohydronomus affinis……Page 355
17.9.2 Spodoptera (Epipsammea) pectinicornis……Page 357
17.10 Competition with other floating water weeds……Page 359
References……Page 361
18.1 Introduction……Page 367
18.3 Biology of the mesquite……Page 369
18.4.2 Predicting efficacy……Page 372
18.4.3 Host-specificity requirements……Page 374
18.4.4 Conflict between benefits and costs……Page 375
18.5.2 Native range……Page 377
18.6.1 Biological control agents that have been considered……Page 378
18.6.2 Ecology and impacts of biological control agents currently in use……Page 380
Seed feeders (Bruchidae)……Page 381
Sap-sucker (Prosopidopsylla flava)……Page 382
Leaf feeders (Evippe sp. #1)……Page 383
18.7 The potential for new biological control measures……Page 385
References……Page 386
19.2 Taxonomy……Page 392
19.3 Description……Page 393
19.4 Biology……Page 394
19.5 Ecology……Page 397
19.7 Distribution and pest status……Page 398
19.9 Impact of Salvinia molesta……Page 400
19.10 Management……Page 402
19.11.1 Cyrtobagous singularis Hustache (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)……Page 403
19.11.2 Cyrtobagous salviniae Calder and Sands (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)……Page 404
19.11.3 Samea multiplicalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)……Page 405
19.11.4 Paulinia acuminata (De Geer) (Orthoptera: Pauliniidae)……Page 407
19.12 Implementing biological control……Page 408
19.12.1 Cyrtobagous singularis Hustache (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)……Page 409
19.12.2 Cyrtobagous salviniae Calder and Sands (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)……Page 410
19.12.3 Samea multiplicalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)……Page 412
19.12.4 Paulinia acuminata (De Geer) (Orthoptera: Pauliniidae)……Page 413
19.14 Benefit:cost of biological control of Salvinia molesta……Page 414
References……Page 415
20.2 Weed distribution and ecology……Page 422
20.3 Biological control initiatives……Page 424
20.4.1 Agents deemed unsuitable……Page 426
20.4.2 Untested candidate agents……Page 427
20.4.3 Agents released……Page 428
20.4.4 Agents proposed for release……Page 429
20.6 Prospects for biological control……Page 430
20.7 Conclusions……Page 433
References……Page 434
21.1 Introduction……Page 437
21.2.2 Striga forbesii Benth. (giant mealie witchweed)……Page 439
21.3 Geographical distribution……Page 440
21.4 Economic consequences……Page 442
21.5 Management……Page 443
Fusarium (Nectriaceae)……Page 444
21.5.3 Herbivores……Page 445
Smicronyx (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)……Page 446
References……Page 447
22.2 History of biological control of weeds……Page 452
22.3.1 Ageratina adenophora……Page 453
22.3.2 Chromolaena odorata……Page 454
22.3.3 Eichhornia crassipes……Page 455
22.3.5 Mikania micrantha……Page 456
22.3.8 Parthenium hysterophorus……Page 457
22.3.9 Salvinia molesta……Page 458
22.4.3 Portulaca oleracea……Page 460
References……Page 461
23.1 International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (I ITA)……Page 467
23.2 Classical biological control in Africa and role of I ITA……Page 469
23.4 A case study for the biological control of water hyacinth and role of I ITA in achieving sustainability……Page 470
23.5 Conclusions, future perspectives and role of I ITA……Page 474
Acknowledgment……Page 476
References……Page 477
24.1 Introduction……Page 479
24.3 Coordination and advisory roles……Page 481
24.4.1 Past projects……Page 482
24.4.2 Current SPC projects……Page 483
24.5.2 Regional capacity……Page 484
24.6 Managing negative perceptions……Page 487
24.7 Opportunities for weed biological control……Page 488
References……Page 492
Index……Page 495


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