Chemistry and Chemical Reactivity 9th Edition by Kotz, Treichel, Townsend

Book Description:

Succeed in chemistry with the clear explanations, problem-solving strategies, and dynamic study tools of CHEMISTRY & CHEMICAL REACTIVITY. Thorough instruction helps you develop a deeper understanding of general chemistry concepts through an emphasis on the visual nature of chemistry and the close interrelationship of the macroscopic, symbolic, and particulate levels of chemistry. The art program illustrates each of these levels in engaging detail.. Interactive study aids in OWLv2, such as Interactive Examples and Adaptive Learning Activities, help you master concepts.

 

Title:            Chemistry and Chemical Reactivity
Editor:           John C. Kotz, Paul M. Treichel, John R. Townsend, David A. Treichel
Edition           9th, Revised and Illustrated
Publisher  :      Cengage Learning
Length:           1416 pages
Size:             192 MB
Language:         English

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

Author(s): John C Kotz; Paul M. Treichel; John Townsend; David Treichel

Publisher: Cengage Learning, Year: 2018

ISBN: 1337399078

[PDF] Chemistry and Chemical Reactivity by Kotz, Treichel, Townsend Table Of Contents

Front Cover……Page 1
Title Page……Page 6
Copyright Page……Page 8
Brief Contents……Page 9
Contents……Page 10
Preface……Page 23
Acknowledgments……Page 34
About the Authors……Page 37
About the Cover……Page 38
Gold!……Page 40
1.1 Chemistry and Its Methods……Page 42
1.2 Sustainability and Green Chemistry……Page 45
1.3 Classifying Matter……Page 46
1.4 Elements……Page 50
1.5 Compounds……Page 52
1.6 Physical Properties……Page 53
1.7 Physical and Chemical Changes……Page 55
1.8 Energy: Some Basic Principles……Page 56
KEY EQUATION……Page 59
STUDY QUESTIONS……Page 60
Copper……Page 64
1 Units of Measurement……Page 65
2 Making Measurements: Precision, Accuracy, Experimental Error, and Standard Deviation……Page 70
3 Mathematics of Chemistry……Page 73
4 Problem Solving by Dimensional Analysis……Page 79
5 Graphs and Graphing……Page 81
6 Problem Solving and Chemical Arithmetic……Page 82
STUDY QUESTIONS……Page 84
The Periodic Table, the Central Icon of Chemistry……Page 90
2.1 Atomic Structure—Protons, Electrons, and Neutrons……Page 91
2.2 Atomic Number and Atomic Mass……Page 92
2.3 Isotopes……Page 94
2.4 Atomic Weight……Page 95
2.5 The Periodic Table……Page 98
2.6 Molecules, Compounds, and Formulas……Page 106
2.7 Ionic Compounds: Formulas, Names, and Properties……Page 109
2.8 Molecular Compounds: Formulas and Names……Page 118
2.9 Atoms, Molecules, and the Mole……Page 120
2.10 Describing Compound Formulas……Page 125
2.11 Hydrated Compounds……Page 134
CHAPTER GOALS REVISITED……Page 136
KEY EQUATIONS……Page 137
STUDY QUESTIONS……Page 138
APPLYING CHEMICAL PRINCIPLES: ARGON—AN AMAZING DISCOVERY……Page 149
Black Smokers and Volcanoes……Page 150
3.1 Introduction to Chemical Equations……Page 151
3.2 Balancing Chemical Equations……Page 154
3.3 Introduction to Chemical Equilibrium……Page 156
3.4 Aqueous Solutions……Page 159
3.5 Precipitation Reactions……Page 163
3.6 Acids and Bases……Page 168
3.7 Gas-Forming Reactions……Page 176
3.8 Oxidation–Reduction Reactions……Page 177
3.9 Classifying Reactions in Aqueous Solution……Page 184
CHAPTER GOALS REVISITED……Page 187
STUDY QUESTIONS……Page 188
APPLYING CHEMICAL PRINCIPLES: SUPERCONDUCTORS……Page 195
The Chemistry of Pyrotechnics……Page 196
4.1 Mass Relationships in Chemical Reactions: Stoichiometry……Page 197
4.2 Reactions in Which One Reactant Is Present in Limited Supply……Page 201
4.3 Percent Yield……Page 205
4.4 Chemical Equations and Chemical Analysis……Page 206
4.5 Measuring Concentrations of Compounds in Solution……Page 213
4.6 pH, a Concentration Scale for Acids and Bases……Page 218
4.7 Stoichiometry of Reactions in Aqueous Solution……Page 221
4.8 Spectrophotometry……Page 228
CHAPTER GOALS REVISITED……Page 233
KEY EQUATIONS……Page 234
STUDY QUESTIONS……Page 235
APPLYING CHEMICAL PRINCIPLES: ANTACIDS……Page 247
Energy and Your Diet……Page 248
5.1 Energy: Some Basic Principles……Page 249
5.2 Specific Heat Capacity: Heating and Cooling……Page 252
5.3 Energy and Changes of State……Page 256
5.4 The First Law of Thermodynamics……Page 259
5.5 Enthalpy Changes for Chemical Reactions……Page 264
5.6 Calorimetry……Page 266
5.7 Enthalpy Calculations……Page 270
5.8 Product- or Reactant-Favored Reactions and Thermodynamics……Page 276
CHAPTER GOALS REVISITED……Page 278
STUDY QUESTIONS……Page 279
APPLYING CHEMICAL PRINCIPLES: GUNPOWDER……Page 291
Supply and Demand: The Balance Sheet on Energy……Page 293
Fossil Fuels……Page 295
Energy in the Future: Choices and Alternatives……Page 300
STUDY QUESTIONS……Page 304
Fireworks……Page 306
6.1 Electromagnetic Radiation……Page 307
6.2 Quantization: Planck, Einstein, Energy, and Photons……Page 309
6.3 Atomic Line Spectra and Niels Bohr……Page 312
6.4 Particle–Wave Duality: Prelude to Quantum Mechanics……Page 318
6.5 The Modern View of Electronic Structure: Wave or Quantum Mechanics……Page 321
6.6 The Shapes of Atomic Orbitals……Page 324
6.7 One More Electron Property: Electron Spin……Page 328
CHAPTER GOALS REVISITED……Page 330
KEY EQUATIONS……Page 332
STUDY QUESTIONS……Page 333
APPLYING CHEMICAL PRINCIPLES: CHEMISTRY OF THE SUN……Page 339
Rubies and Sapphires—Pretty Stones……Page 340
7.1 The Pauli Exclusion Principle……Page 341
7.2 Atomic Subshell Energies and Electron Assignments……Page 343
7.3 Electron Configurations of Atoms……Page 345
7.4 Electron Configurations of Ions……Page 353
7.5 Atomic Properties and Periodic Trends……Page 355
7.6 Periodic Trends and Chemical Properties……Page 363
CHAPTER GOALS REVISITED……Page 366
STUDY QUESTIONS……Page 367
APPLYING CHEMICAL PRINCIPLES: THE NOT-SO-RARE EARTHS……Page 373
Greek Philosophers and Medieval Alchemists……Page 375
Chemists of the 18th–19th Centuries……Page 376
Atomic Structure: Remarkable Discoveries—1890s and Beyond……Page 378
STUDY QUESTIONS……Page 383
Chemical Bonding in DNA……Page 384
8.1 Chemical Bond Formation……Page 385
8.2 Covalent Bonding and Lewis Structures……Page 386
8.3 Atom Formal Charges in Covalent Molecules and Ions……Page 394
8.4 Resonance……Page 396
8.5 Exceptions to the Octet Rule……Page 400
8.6 Molecular Shapes……Page 404
8.7 Bond Polarity and Electronegativity……Page 411
8.8 Bond and Molecular Polarity……Page 415
8.9 Bond Properties: Order, Length, and Energy……Page 421
8.10 DNA, Revisited……Page 428
CHAPTER GOALS REVISITED……Page 429
STUDY QUESTIONS……Page 431
APPLYING CHEMICAL PRINCIPLES: LINUS PAULING AND ELECTRONEGATIVITY……Page 439
The Noble Gases: Not So Inert……Page 440
9.1 Orbitals and Theories of Chemical Bonding……Page 441
9.2 Valence Bond Theory……Page 442
9.3 Molecular Orbital Theory……Page 456
CHAPTER GOALS REVISITED……Page 468
STUDY QUESTIONS……Page 469
APPLYING CHEMICAL PRINCIPLES: PROBING MOLECULES WITH PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY……Page 477
The Food of the Gods……Page 478
10.1 Why Carbon?……Page 479
10.2 Hydrocarbons……Page 483
10.3 Alcohols, Ethers, and Amines……Page 497
10.4 Compounds with a Carbonyl Group……Page 504
10.5 Polymers……Page 513
STUDY QUESTIONS……Page 522
APPLYING CHEMICAL PRINCIPLES: BIODIESEL—AN ATTRACTIVE FUEL FOR THE FUTURE?……Page 529
Proteins……Page 531
Nucleic Acids……Page 536
Lipids and Cell Membranes……Page 540
Metabolism……Page 544
STUDY QUESTIONS……Page 546
The Atmosphere and Altitude Sickness……Page 548
11.1 Gas Pressure……Page 550
11.2 Gas Laws: The Experimental Basis……Page 551
11.3 The Ideal Gas Law……Page 558
11.4 Gas Laws and Chemical Reactions……Page 562
11.5 Gas Mixtures and Partial Pressures……Page 564
11.6 The Kinetic-Molecular Theory of Gases……Page 567
11.7 Diffusion and Effusion……Page 572
11.8 Nonideal Behavior of Gases……Page 574
KEY EQUATIONS……Page 577
STUDY QUESTIONS……Page 578
APPLYING CHEMICAL PRINCIPLES: THE GOODYEAR BLIMP……Page 587
Geckos Can Climb Up der Waals……Page 588
12.1 States of Matter and Intermolecular Forces……Page 589
12.2 Interactions between Ions and Molecules with a Permanent Dipole……Page 590
12.3 Interactions between Molecules with a Dipole……Page 592
12.4 Intermolecular Forces Involving Nonpolar Molecules……Page 599
12.5 A Summary of van der Waals Intermolecular Forces……Page 603
12.6 Properties of Liquids……Page 604
CHAPTER GOALS REVISITED……Page 614
STUDY QUESTIONS……Page 615
APPLYING CHEMICAL PRINCIPLES: CHROMATOGRAPHY……Page 621
Lithium and “Green Cars”……Page 622
13.1 Crystal Lattices and Unit Cells……Page 623
13.2 Structures and Formulas of Ionic Solids……Page 630
13.3 Bonding in Metals and Semiconductors……Page 634
13.4 Bonding in Ionic Compounds: Lattice Energy……Page 638
13.5 The Solid State: Other Types of Solid Materials……Page 641
13.6 Phase Changes Involving Solids……Page 642
13.7 Phase Diagrams……Page 646
CHAPTER GOALS REVISITED……Page 648
STUDY QUESTIONS……Page 649
APPLYING CHEMICAL PRINCIPLES: TIN DISEASE……Page 655
Survival at Sea……Page 656
14.1 Units of Concentration……Page 658
14.2 The Solution Process……Page 660
14.3 Factors Affecting Solubility: Pressure and Temperature……Page 666
14.4 Colligative Properties……Page 670
14.5 Colloids……Page 683
CHAPTER GOALS REVISITED……Page 686
KEY EQUATIONS……Page 687
STUDY QUESTIONS……Page 688
APPLYING CHEMICAL PRINCIPLES: DISTILLATION……Page 695
Alloys: Mixtures of Metals……Page 697
Semiconductors……Page 699
Ceramics……Page 700
Biomaterials: Learning from Nature……Page 705
The Future of Materials……Page 706
STUDY QUESTIONS……Page 707
Where Did the Indicator Go?……Page 708
15.1 Rates of Chemical Reactions……Page 709
15.2 Reaction Conditions and Rate……Page 714
15.3 Effect of Concentration on Reaction Rate……Page 715
15.4 Concentration–Time Relationships: Integrated Rate Laws……Page 721
15.5 A Microscopic View of Reaction Rates……Page 729
15.6 Reaction Mechanisms……Page 737
CHAPTER GOALS REVISITED……Page 746
KEY EQUATIONS……Page 747
STUDY QUESTIONS……Page 748
APPLYING CHEMICAL PRINCIPLES: KINETICS AND MECHANISMS: A 70-YEAR-OLD MYSTERY SOLVED……Page 759
Dynamic and Reversible!……Page 760
16.1 Chemical Equilibrium: A Review……Page 761
16.2 The Equilibrium Constant and Reaction Quotient……Page 762
16.3 Determining an Equilibrium Constant……Page 770
16.4 Using Equilibrium Constants in Calculations……Page 773
16.5 More about Balanced Equations and Equilibrium Constants……Page 778
16.6 Disturbing a Chemical Equilibrium……Page 780
CHAPTER GOALS REVISITED……Page 786
KEY EQUATIONS……Page 787
STUDY QUESTIONS……Page 788
APPLYING CHEMICAL PRINCIPLES: TRIVALENT CARBON……Page 795
Aspirin Is Over 100 Years Old!……Page 796
17.1 Acids and Bases: A Review……Page 797
17.2 The Brønsted-Lowry Concept of Acids and Bases Extended……Page 798
17.3 Water and the pH Scale……Page 800
17.4 Equilibrium Constants for Acids and Bases……Page 804
17.5 Acid–Base Properties of Salts……Page 809
17.6 Predicting the Direction of Acid–Base Reactions……Page 811
17.7 Types of Acid–Base Reactions……Page 814
17.8 Calculations with Equilibrium Constants……Page 816
17.9 Polyprotic Acids and Bases……Page 825
17.10 Molecular Structure, Bonding, and Acid–Base Behavior……Page 827
17.11 The Lewis Concept of Acids and Bases……Page 831
KEY EQUATIONS……Page 836
STUDY QUESTIONS……Page 837
APPLYING CHEMICAL PRINCIPLES: THE LEVELING EFFECT, NONAQUEOUS SOLVENTS, AND SUPERACIDS……Page 845
Nature’s Acids……Page 846
18.1 The Common Ion Effect……Page 847
18.2 Controlling pH: Buffer Solutions……Page 850
18.3 Acid–Base Titrations……Page 858
18.4 Solubility of Salts……Page 868
18.5 Precipitation Reactions……Page 879
18.6 Equilibria Involving Complex Ions……Page 883
18.7 Solubility and Complex Ions……Page 884
CHAPTER GOALS REVISITED……Page 886
KEY EQUATIONS……Page 887
STUDY QUESTIONS……Page 888
APPLYING CHEMICAL PRINCIPLES: EVERYTHING THAT GLITTERS . . …….Page 897
Hydrogen for the Future?……Page 898
19.1 Spontaneity and Energy Transfer as Heat……Page 899
19.2 Dispersal of Energy: Entropy……Page 901
19.3 Entropy: A Microscopic Understanding……Page 902
19.4 Entropy Measurement and Values……Page 906
19.5 Entropy Changes and Spontaneity……Page 909
19.6 Gibbs Free Energy……Page 914
19.7 Calculating and Using Free Energy……Page 918
CHAPTER GOALS REVISITED……Page 924
KEY EQUATIONS……Page 925
STUDY QUESTIONS……Page 926
APPLYING CHEMICAL PRINCIPLES: ARE DIAMONDS FOREVER?……Page 933
Battery Power……Page 934
20.1 Oxidation–Reduction Reactions……Page 936
20.2 Simple Voltaic Cells……Page 943
20.3 Commercial Voltaic Cells……Page 948
20.4 Standard Electrochemical Potentials……Page 953
20.5 Electrochemical Cells under Nonstandard Conditions……Page 961
20.6 Electrochemistry and Thermodynamics……Page 965
20.7 Electrolysis: Chemical Change Using Electrical Energy……Page 969
20.8 Counting Electrons……Page 974
CHAPTER GOALS REVISITED……Page 975
KEY EQUATIONS……Page 976
STUDY QUESTIONS……Page 977
APPLYING CHEMICAL PRINCIPLES: SACRIFICE!……Page 985
The Atmosphere……Page 987
Climate Change……Page 992
The Aqua Sphere (Water)……Page 993
Green Chemistry……Page 998
STUDY QUESTIONS……Page 999
Carbon and Silicon……Page 1000
21.1 Element Abundances……Page 1001
21.2 The Periodic Table: A Guide to the Elements……Page 1002
21.3 Hydrogen……Page 1006
21.4 The Alkali Metals, Group 1A……Page 1009
21.5 The Alkaline Earth Elements, Group 2A……Page 1014
21.6 Boron, Aluminum, and the Group 3A Elements……Page 1019
21.7 Silicon and the Group 4A Elements……Page 1024
21.8 Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and the Group 5A Elements……Page 1029
21.9 Oxygen, Sulfur, and the Group 6A Elements……Page 1038
21.10 The Halogens, Group 7A……Page 1041
CHAPTER GOALS REVISITED……Page 1046
STUDY QUESTIONS……Page 1047
APPLYING CHEMICAL PRINCIPLES: VAN ARKEL TRIANGLES AND BONDING……Page 1055
Memory Metal……Page 1056
22.1 Properties of the Transition Elements……Page 1058
22.2 Metallurgy……Page 1063
22.3 Coordination Compounds……Page 1066
22.4 Structures of Coordination Compounds……Page 1074
22.5 Bonding in Coordination Compounds……Page 1078
22.6 Colors of Coordination Compounds……Page 1083
22.7 Organometallic Chemistry: Compounds with Metal–Carbon Bonds……Page 1087
CHAPTER GOALS REVISITED……Page 1091
STUDY QUESTIONS……Page 1092
APPLYING CHEMICAL PRINCIPLES: GREEN CATALYSTS……Page 1097
A Primordial Nuclear Reactor……Page 1098
23.1 Natural Radioactivity……Page 1099
23.2 Nuclear Reactions and Radioactive Decay……Page 1100
23.3 Stability of Atomic Nuclei……Page 1105
23.4 Rates of Nuclear Decay……Page 1110
23.5 Artificial Nuclear Reactions……Page 1115
23.6 Nuclear Fission……Page 1118
23.7 Nuclear Fusion……Page 1120
23.8 Radiation Health and Safety……Page 1121
23.9 Applications of Nuclear Chemistry……Page 1123
KEY EQUATIONS……Page 1128
STUDY QUESTIONS……Page 1129
APPLYING CHEMICAL PRINCIPLES: THE AGE OF METEORITES……Page 1134
List of Appendices……Page 1135
A: Using Logarithms and Solving Quadratic Equations……Page 1136
B: Some Important Physical Concepts……Page 1140
C: Abbreviations and Useful Conversion Factors……Page 1143
D: Physical Constants……Page 1147
E: A Brief Guide to Naming Organic Compounds……Page 1149
F: Values for the Ionization Energies and Electron Attachment Enthalpies of the Elements……Page 1152
G: Vapor Pressure of Water at Various Temperatures……Page 1153
H: Ionization Constants for Aqueous Weak Acids at 25 °C……Page 1154
I: Ionization Constants for Aqueous Weak Bases at 25 °C……Page 1156
J: Solubility Product Constants for Some Inorganic Compounds at 25 °C……Page 1157
K: Formation Constants for Some Complex Ions in Aqueous Solution at 25 °C……Page 1159
L: Selected Thermodynamic Values……Page 1160
M: Standard Reduction Potentials in Aqueous Solution at 25 °C……Page 1166
N: Answers to Chapter Opening Questions and Case Study Questions……Page 1170
O: Answers to Check Your Understanding Questions……Page 1181
P: Answers to Review & Check Questions……Page 1197
Q: Answers to Selected Interchapter Study Questions……Page 1206
R: Answers to Selected Study Questions……Page 1209
Index/Glossary……Page 1267


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