E book Particulars :
Language English
Pages 200
Format PDF
Dimension 33.9 MB


Combined Cycle Gas and Steam Turbine Power Plants Third Edtion by Rolf Keh and Frank Hannemann


The literature has usually steered combining two or extra thermal cycles inside a single energy plant. In all instances, the intention was to extend effectivity over that of single cycles. Thermal processes could be mixed on this manner whether or not they function with the identical or with differing working media. Nonetheless, a mixture of cycles with completely different working media is extra fascinating as a result of their benefits can complement each other. Usually the cycles could be classed as a ”topping” and a ”bottoming” cycle.

he first cycle, to which a lot of the warmth is equipped, is named the “topping cycle.” The waste warmth it produces is then utilized in a second course of which operates at a decrease temperature stage and is due to this fact known as a “bottoming cycle.” Cautious choice of the working media makes it doable to create an total course of that makes optimum thermodynamic use of the warmth within the higher vary of temperatures and returns waste warmth to the setting at as low a temperature stage as doable.


Usually the ”topping” and ”bottoming” cycles are coupled in a warmth exchanger. As much as the current time, just one mixed cycle has discovered huge acceptance: the mixture fuel turbine/steam turbine energy plant. To this point, crops of this kind have burned typically fossil fuels (principally-liquid fuels or gases.)  Fig. 1 is a simplified stream diagram for an set up of this kind, during which an open-cycle fuel turbine is adopted by a steam course of. The warmth given off by the fuel turbine is used to generate steam. Different combos are additionally doable, e.g., a mercury vapor course of or changing the water with natural fluids or ammonia.

The mercury vapor course of is not of curiosity at this time since even standard steam energy crops obtain larger efficiencies. Natural fluids or ammonia have sure benefits over water within the low temperature vary, akin to decreased quantity flows, no wetness. Nonetheless, the disadvantages, i.e., growth prices, environmental influence, and many others., seem nice sufficient to stop their ever changing the steam course of in a combined-cycle energy plant. The dialogue that follows offers primarily with the mixture of an open-cycle fuel turbine with a water/steam cycle.


Sure particular functions utilizing closed-cycle fuel generators may also be handled briefly.  It due to this fact is kind of affordable to make use of the steam course of for the “bottoming cycle.” That such mixture fuel turbine/steam turbine energy crops weren’t extra broadly used even earlier has clearly been because of the historic growth of the fuel turbine. Solely lately have fuel generators attained inlet temperatures that make it doable to design a really highefficiency cycle. Immediately, nonetheless, the put in energy capability of combined-cycle fuel turbine/steam turbine energy crops worldwide world totals greater than 30,000 MW.

810Okay (980°F), whereas the combustion temperature within the boiler is approx. 2000 Okay. Then, too, the temperature of the waste warmth from the method is larger than the ambient temperature. Each warmth trade processes trigger losses. One of the simplest ways to enhance the method effectivity is to scale back these losses, which could be achieved by elevating the utmost temperature within the cycle, or by releasing the waste warmth at as low a temperature as doable. The curiosity in combined-cycles arises notably from these two issues. By its nature, no single cycle could make each enhancements to an equal extent.

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