Essentials of Biology

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Title:

Essentials of biology

Extension: PDF
Author(s): Sylvia S. Mader; Michael Windelspecht
Year: 2018 Edition: Fifth
Language: English Pages: 718
ISBN: 9781259660269, 1259660265 Size: 274 MB
Book Description:

Essentials of Biology is an introductory biology text fornon-major students that can be used in a one- or two-semester course. It wasprepared to provide non-science majors with a fundamental understanding of thescience of biology. The overall focus of this edition addresses the learningstyles of modern students, and in the process, increases their understanding ofthe importance of science in their lives. It was prepared to engage todaysstudents in the science of biology by providing a fundamental understanding oflife. Digital resources and Connections boxes encourage the student tointegrate scientific concepts into their lives. Essentials of Biology isfully integrated into McGraw-Hill’s adaptive learning and Connect platforms,and is associated with a number of online assets that allow instructors to usethis text as a content foundation for traditional, online, hybrid and»flipped» classrooms.

 

Table of contents :

Cover
Title Page
Copyright Page
Brief Contents
About the Authors
Preface
Acknowledgments
Contents
CHAPTER 1 Biology: The Science of Life
1.1 The Characteristics of Life
Life Requires Materials and Energy
Living Organisms Maintain an Internal Environment
Living Organisms Respond
Living Organisms Reproduce and Develop
Living Organisms Have Adaptations
1.2 Evolution: The Core Concept of Biology
Natural Selection and Evolutionary Processes
Organizing the Diversity of Life
1.3 Science: A Way of Knowing
Start with an Observation
Develop a Hypothesis
Make a Prediction and Perform Experiments
Develop a Conclusion
Scientific Theory
An Example of a Controlled Study
Publishing the Results
1.4 Challenges Facing Science
Biodiversity and Habitat Loss
Emerging and Reemerging Diseases
Climate Change
Part I The Cell
CHAPTER 2 The Chemical Basis of Life
2.1 Atoms and Atomic Bonds
Atomic Structure
The Periodic Table
Isotopes
Arrangement of Electrons in an Atom
Types of Chemical Bonds
Chemical Formulas and Reactions
2.2 Water’s Importance to Life
The Structure of Water
Properties of Water
2.3 Acids and Bases
Acidic Solutions (High H+ Concentration)
Basic Solutions (Low H+ Concentration)
pH and the pH Scale
Buffers and pH
CHAPTER 3 The Organic Molecules of Life
3.1 Organic Molecules
The Carbon Atom
The Carbon Skeleton and Functional Groups
3.2 The Biological Molecules of Cells
Carbohydrates
Lipids
Proteins
Nucleic Acids
CHAPTER 4 Inside the Cell
4.1 Cells Under the Microscope
4.2 The Plasma Membrane
Functions of Membrane Proteins
4.3 The Two Main Types of Cells
Prokaryotic Cells
4.4 Eukaryotic Cells
Nucleus and Ribosomes
Endomembrane System
Vesicles and Vacuoles
Energy-Related Organelles
The Cytoskeleton and Motor Proteins
Centrioles
Cilia and Flagella
4.5 Outside the Eukaryotic Cell
Cell Walls
Extracellular Matrix
Junctions Between Cells
CHAPTER 5 The Dynamic Cell
5.1 What Is Energy? 80
Measuring Energy
Energy Laws
5.2 ATP: Energy for Cells
Structure of ATP
Use and Production of ATP
The Flow of Energy
5.3 Metabolic Pathways and Enzymes
An Enzyme’s Active Site
Energy of Activation
5.4 Cell Transport
Passive Transport: No Energy Required
Active Transport: Energy Required
Bulk Transport
CHAPTER 6 Energy for Life
6.1 Overview of Photosynthesis
Plants as Photosynthesizers
The Photosynthetic Process
6.2 The Light Reactions-Harvesting Energy
Photosynthetic Pigments
The Light Reactions: Capturing Solar Energy
6.3 The Calvin Cycle Reactions-Making Sugars
Overview of the Calvin Cycle
Reduction of Carbon Dioxide
The Fate of G3P
6.4 Variations in Photosynthesis
C3 Photosynthesis
C4 Photosynthesis
CAM Photosynthesis
Evolutionary Trends
CHAPTER 7 Energy for Cells
7.1 Cellular Respiration
Phases of Complete Glucose Breakdown
7.2 Outside the Mitochondria: Glycolysis
Energy-Investment Step
Energy-Harvesting Steps
7.3 Outside the Mitochondria: Fermentation
Lactic Acid Fermentation
Alcohol Fermentation
7.4 Inside the Mitochondria
Preparatory Reaction
The Citric Acid Cycle
The Electron Transport Chain
7.5 Metabolic Fate of Food
Energy Yield from Glucose Metabolism
Alternative Metabolic Pathways
Part II Genetics
CHAPTER 8 Cellular Reproduction
8.1 The Basics of Cellular Reproduction
Chromosomes
Chromatin to Chromosomes
8.2 The Cell Cycle: Interphase, Mitosis, and Cytokinesis
Interphase
M (Mitotic) Phase
8.3 The Cell Cycle Control System
Cell Cycle Checkpoints
Internal and External Signals
Apoptosis
8.4 The Cell Cycle and Cancer
Proto-Oncogenes and Tumor Suppressor Genes
Other Genetic Changes and Cancer
8.5 Characteristics of Cancer
Characteristics of Cancer Cells
Cancer Treatment
Prevention of Cancer
CHAPTER 9 Meiosis and the Genetic Basis of Sexual Reproduction
9.1 An Overview of Meiosis
Homologous Chromosomes
The Human Life Cycle
Overview of Meiosis
9.2 The Phases of Meiosis
The First Division-Meiosis I
The Second Division-Meiosis II
9.3 Meiosis Compared with Mitosis
Meiosis I Compared with Mitosis
Meiosis II Compared with Mitosis
Mitosis and Meiosis Occur at Different Times
9.4 Changes in Chromosome Number
Down Syndrome
Abnormal Sex Chromosome Number
CHAPTER 10 Patterns of Inheritance
10.1 Mendel’s Laws
Mendel’s Experimental Procedure
One-Trait Inheritance
Two-Trait Inheritance
Mendel’s Laws and Probability
Mendel’s Laws and Meiosis
10.2 Mendel’s Laws Apply to Humans
Family Pedigrees
Genetic Disorders of Interest
10.3 Beyond Mendel’s Laws
Incomplete Dominance
Multiple-Allele Traits
Polygenic Inheritance
Gene Interactions
Pleiotropy
Linkage
10.4 Sex-Linked Inheritance
Sex-Linked Alleles
Pedigrees for Sex-Linked Disorders
X-Linked Recessive Disorders
CHAPTER 11 DNA Biology
11.1 DNA and RNA Structure and Function
Structure of DNA
Replication of DNA
RNA Structure and Function
11.2 Gene Expression
From DNA to RNA to Protein
Review of Gene Expression
11.3 Gene Regulation
Levels of Gene Expression Control
CHAPTER 12 Biotechnology and Genomics
12.1 Biotechnology
Recombinant DNA Technology
DNA Sequencing
Polymerase Chain Reaction
DNA Analysis
Genome Editing
12.2 Stem Cells and Cloning
Reproductive and Therapeutic Cloning
12.3 Biotechnology Products
Genetically Modified Bacteria
Genetically Modified Plants
Genetically Modified Animals
12.4 Genomics and Proteomics
Sequencing the Bases of the Human Genome
Proteomics and Bioinformatics
CHAPTER 13 Genetic Counseling
13.1 Gene Mutations
Causes of Gene Mutations
Types and Effects of Mutations
13.2 Chromosomal Mutations
Deletions and Duplications
Translocation
Inversion
13.3 Genetic Testing
Analyzing the Chromosomes
Testing for a Protein
Testing the DNA
Testing the Fetus
Testing the Embryo and Egg
13.4 Gene Therapy
Ex Vivo Gene Therapy
In Vivo Gene Therapy
Part III Evolution
CHAPTER 14 Darwin and Evolution
14.1 Darwin’s Theory of Evolution
Before Darwin
Darwin’s Conclusions
Natural Selection and Adaptation
Darwin and Wallace
14.2 Evidence of Evolutionary Change
Fossil Evidence
Biogeographical Evidence
Anatomical Evidence
Molecular Evidence
CHAPTER 15 Evolution on a Small Scale
15.1 Natural Selection
Types of Selection
Sexual Selection
Adaptations Are Not Perfect
Maintenance of Variations
15.2 Microevolution
Evolution in a Genetic Context
Causes of Microevolution
CHAPTER 16 Evolution on a Large Scale
16.1 Speciation and Macroevolution
Defining Species
Models of Speciation
16.2 The Fossil Record
The Geological Timescale
The Pace of Speciation
Causes of Mass Extinctions
16.3 Systematics
Linnaean Classification
Phylogenetic Trees
Cladistics and Cladograms
The Three-Domain System
Part IV Diversity of Life
CHAPTER 17 The Microorganisms: Viruses, Bacteria, and Protists
17.1 The Viruses
Structure of a Virus
Viral Reproduction
Plant Viruses
Animal Viruses
17.2 Viroids and Prions
17.3 The Prokaryotes
The Origin of the First Cells
Bacteria
Archaea
17.4 The Protists
Evolution of Protists
Classification of Protists
CHAPTER 18 The Plants and Fungi
18.1 Overview of the Plants
An Overview of Plant Evolution
Alternation of Generations
18.2 Diversity of Plants
Nonvascular Plants
Vascular Plants
Gymnosperms
Angiosperms
Economic Benefits of Plants
Ecological Benefits of Plants
18.3 The Fungi
General Biology of a Fungus
Fungal Diversity
Ecological Benefits of Fungi
Economic Benefits of Fungi
Fungi as Disease-Causing Organisms
CHAPTER 19 Both Water and Land: Animals
19.1 Evolution of Animals
Ancestry of Animals
The Evolutionary Tree of Animals
Evolutionary Trends
19.2 Sponges and Cnidarians: The Early Animals
Sponges: Multicellularity
Cnidarians: True Tissues
19.3 Flatworms, Molluscs, and Annelids: The Lophotrochozoans
Flatworms: Bilateral Symmetry
Molluscs
Annelids: Segmented Worms
19.4 Roundworms and Arthropods: The Ecdysozoans
Roundworms: Pseudocoelomates
Arthropods: Jointed Appendages
19.5 Echinoderms and Chordates: The Deuterostomes
Echinoderms
Chordates
Fishes: First Jaws and Lungs
Amphibians: Jointed Vertebrate Limbs
Reptiles: Amniotic Egg
Mammals: Hair and Mammary Glands
19.6 Human Evolution
Evolution of Humanlike Hominins
Evolution of Modern Humans
Part V Plant Structure and Function
CHAPTER 20 Plant Anatomy and Growth
20.1 Plant Cells and Tissues
Epidermal Tissue
Ground Tissue
Vascular Tissue
20.2 Plant Organs
Monocots Versus Eudicots
20.3 Organization of Leaves, Stems, and Roots
Leaves
Stems
Roots
20.4 Plant Nutrition
Adaptations of Roots for Mineral Uptake
20.5 Transport of Nutrients
Water Transport in Xylem
Sugar Transport in Phloem
CHAPTER 21 Plant Responses and Reproduction
21.1 Plant Hormones
Auxins
Gibberellins
Cytokinins
Abscisic Acid
Ethylene
21.2 Plant Responses
Tropisms
Photoperiodism
21.3 Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
Overview of the Plant Life Cycle
Flowers
From Spores to Fertilization
Development of the Seed in a Eudicot
Monocots Versus Eudicots
Fruit Types and Seed Dispersal
Germination of Seeds
21.4 Asexual Reproduction and Genetic Engineering in Plants
Propagation of Plants in a Garden
Propagation of Plants in Tissue Culture
Genetic Engineering of Plants
Part VI Animal Structure and Function
CHAPTER 22 Being Organized and Steady
22.1 The Body’s Organization
Epithelial Tissue Protects
Connective Tissue Connects and Supports
Muscular Tissue Moves the Body
Nervous Tissue Communicates
22.2 Organs and Organ Systems
Transport and Protection
Maintenance of the Body
Control
Sensory Input and Motor Output
Reproduction
22.3 Homeostasis
Organ Systems and Homeostasis
Negative Feedback
CHAPTER 23 The Transport Systems
23.1 Open and Closed Circulatory Systems
Open Circulatory Systems
Closed Circulatory Systems
Comparison of Vertebrate Circulatory Pathways
23.2 Transport in Humans
The Human Heart
Blood Vessels
Lymphatic System
Capillary Exchange in the Tissues
23.3 Blood: A Transport Medium
Plasma
Formed Elements
Cardiovascular Disorders
CHAPTER 24 The Maintenance Systems
24.1 Respiratory System
The Human Respiratory Tract
Breathing
Lungs and External Exchange of Gases
Transport and Internal Exchange of Gases
24.2 Urinary System
Human Kidney
Problems with Kidney Function
CHAPTER 25 Digestion and Human Nutrition
25.1 Digestive System
Complete and Incomplete Digestive Systems
The Digestive Tract
Accessory Organs
Digestive Enzymes
25.2 Nutrition
Introducing the Nutrients
25.3 The Classes of Nutrients
Carbohydrates
Lipids
Proteins
Minerals
Vitamins
Water
25.4 Understanding Nutrition Guidelines
Updating Dietary Guidelines
Visualizing Dietary Guidelines
Dietary Supplements
The Bottom Line
25.5 Nutrition and Health
Body Mass Index
Disorders Associated with Obesity
Eating Disorders
CHAPTER 26 Defenses Against Disease
26.1 Overview of the Immune System
Lymphatic Organs
Cells of the Immune System
26.2 Nonspecific Defenses and Innate Immunity
Barriers to Entry
The Inflammatory Response
The Complement System
Natural Killer Cells
26.3 Specific Defenses and Adaptive Immunity
B Cells and the Antibody Response
T Cells and the Cellular Response
26.4 Immunizations
26.5 Disorders of the Immune System
Allergies
Autoimmune Diseases
AIDS
CHAPTER 27 The Control Systems
27.1 Nervous System
Examples of Nervous Systems
The Human Nervous System
Neurons
The Nerve Impulse
The Synapse
Drug Abuse
The Central Nervous System
The Peripheral Nervous System
27.2 Endocrine System
The Action of Hormones
Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland
Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands
Adrenal Glands
Pancreas
CHAPTER 28 Sensory Input and Motor Output
28.1 The Senses
Chemical Senses
Hearing and Balance
Vision
Cutaneous Receptors and Proprioceptors
28.2 The Motor Systems
Types of Skeletons
The Human Skeleton
Skeletal Muscle Structure and Physiology
CHAPTER 29 Reproduction and Embryonic Development
29.1 How Animals Reproduce
Asexual Versus Sexual Reproduction
Sexual Reproduction
29.2 Human Reproduction
Male Reproductive System
Female Reproductive System
Control of Reproduction
Infertility
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
29.3 Human Embryonic Development
Fertilization
Early Embryonic Development
Later Embryonic Development
Placenta
Fetal Development and Birth
Part VII Ecology
CHAPTER 30 Ecology and Populations
30.1 The Scope of Ecology
Ecology: A Biological Science
30.2 The Human Population
Present Population Growth
Future Population Growth
More-Developed Versus Less-Developed Countries
Comparing Age Structures
Population Growth and Environmental Impact
30.3 Characteristics of Populations
Distribution and Density
Population Growth
Patterns of Population Growth
Factors That Regulate Population Growth
30.4 Life History Patterns and Extinction
Extinction
CHAPTER 31 Communities and Ecosystems
31.1 Ecology of Communities
Community Composition and Diversity
Ecological Succession
Interactions in Communities
Community Stability
31.2 Ecology of Ecosystems
Autotrophs
Heterotrophs
Energy Flow and Chemical Cycling
Chemical Cycling
31.3 Ecology of Major Ecosystems
Primary Productivity
CHAPTER 32 Human Impact on the Biosphere
32.1 Conservation Biology
32.2 Biodiversity
Direct Values of Biodiversity
Indirect Values of Biodiversity
32.3 Resources and Environmental Impact
Land
Water
Food
Energy
Minerals
Other Sources of Pollution
32.4 Sustainable Societies
Today’s Society
Characteristics of a Sustainable Society
Appendix A Periodic Table of the Elements & The Metric System
Appendix B Answer Key
Glossary
Index

 

Essentials of Biology PDF

Author(s): Sylvia S. Mader; Michael Windelspecht

Year: 2018

ISBN: 9781259660269

 

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