E book Particulars :
Language English
Pages 804
Format PDF
Measurement 76.8 MB

 

High Voltage Engineering by Farouk Rizk and Giao Trinh


 

High Voltage Engineering by Farouk Rizk and Giao Trinh | PDF Free Download.

Contents of High Voltage Engineering PDF


  • Energy System Overvoltages
  • Electrostatic Discipline Calculation
  • Utility of Statistical Evaluation in High Voltage Engineering
  • Electrical Breakdown in Gases
  • Breakdown Traits of Lengthy Air Gaps
  • Electrical Breakdown in Liquids
  • Electrical Breakdown in Strong and Composite Supplies
  • Number of Overhead Transmission Line Conductors
  • Lightning Incidence and Lightning Safety
  • High-Voltage Insulators
  • High-Voltage (Underground) Cables
  • Energy Transformers
  • Insulation Coordination
  • High-Voltage Testing and Measuring Methods

Preface to High Voltage Engineering PDF


High voltage engineering is an enormous topic, extending from fundamental information in physics, chemistry, and materials science to functions within the insulation design of high-voltage transmission traces and substation gear.

Though excessive voltage engineering functions lengthen to drugs and nuclear science, these subjects are past the scope of this ebook.

The ebook is focused in direction of these within the electrical energy occupation. The number of what materials to incorporate is a tough choice.

To restrict the scope even additional, it was determined to exclude materials on the design and testing of high-voltage switchgear, a topic of nice scientific and sensible curiosity that’s normally handled beneath the designation: excessive energy engineering.

There are some compelling causes to jot down a brand new ebook on excessive voltage engineering. Firstly, there’s a new revival of worldwide curiosity in EHV and UHV energy transmission.

UHV ac transmission traces have been working for the final twenty years in Russia, and extra lately, in China. UHV ac traces of 1200 kV are additionally being deliberate in India.

UHV dc transmission traces of ±750 and ±800 kV have been working in Russia and, extra lately, in China and are presently within the strategy planning stage in India.

A ±1000 kV UHV dc line is being designed in China, with business operation foreseen in about two years.

Second, many consultants in excessive voltage engineering have retired within the final decade, and it will be useful for the sake of a brand new era of engineers to preserve a few of that have.

The ebook contains 14 chapters. Insulation programs of transmission traces and energy gear are uncovered to stresses triggered by working voltage in addition to these as a consequence of inside and exterior overvoltages.

Chapter 1 supplies a quick evaluation of energy system overvoltages. It begins with easy lumped circuits that may be handled by direct answer of differential equations or by Laplace transforms.

Evaluation is then prolonged to lengthy transmission traces with distributed parameters. Short-term overvoltages (TOV) are addressed first, with an emphasis on the results of impartial grounding and shunt reactor compensation.

Symmetrical parts are launched to cope with unsymmetrical faults. Touring waves comply with from the answer of the wave equation of a single lossless line beneath unit step energization.

This was later prolonged to account for generalized enter. Particular consideration is paid to the necessary case of energization of an open line with and with out surge arrester termination.

Three-phase traces are handled utilizing modal evaluation. Nonetheless, all by way of the emphasis is on understanding the overvoltage era mechanism quite than the completeness or sophistication of the computational process, which is roofed in additional specialised texts.

 

Particular consideration is paid to overvoltages triggered by interruption of small inductive and capacitive currents. The chapter concludes with a quick abstract of the EMTP.

An instance is given on the energization of an open 735 kV transmission line. Electrical subject calculations are important, since ionization phenomena in electrical insulation programs are very delicate to electrical stresses.

That is lined in Chapter 2, which offers with electrostatic fields. Within the absence of area cost, the issue quantities to answer of Laplace equation beneath applicable boundary situations.

Within the presence of area cost, we cope with Poisson’s equation. Generally, these equations are three dimensional, however appreciable simplification ends in symmetrical configurations.

Analytical options for easy geometries are launched. Uniform subject electrodes are additionally launched for single and composite dielectrics.

Cylindrical geometry is mentioned, with a concentrate on coaxial cables. Prolate spheroidal coordinates are offered, with software to spheroidal electrodes and dielectric particles.

A hyperboidal subject is launched with specific reference to the fundamental rod-plane hole usually handled in lengthy air hole checks.

Completely different strategies of transformation are described, with an emphasis on the strategy of pictures. Among the many electrodes handled is the sphere– sphere configuration, traditionally used as a high-voltage measuring gadget.

Numerical strategies for subject computation are briefly reviewed. The strategy of successive pictures is of specific significance in dealing with electrical fields of multiconductor programs.

That is adopted by a dialogue of the cost simulation methodology, which is utilized to a coaxial SF6 cable with epoxy spacers.

Lastly, the chapter presents a quick account of the strategies of finite variations and finite parts. Recognition of the statistical nature of ionization and breakdown phenomena is important for correct planning of high-voltage checks and for interpretation of check outcomes.

That is lined in Chapter 3, which describes the characterization of a set of check outcomes. The chapter then introduces discrete and steady statistical distributions, together with the binomial, Poisson, Maxwell, and regular distributions.

For low breakdown likelihood, a lot of extreme-value distributions are necessary. The chapter due to this fact describes the Gumbel extreme-value distribution in addition to the Weibull distribution, which is more likely to be extra acquainted to excessive voltage engineers.

Strategies of choice for the suitable distribution to characterize a sure inhabitants are launched, together with the ideas of 50% worth, customary deviation, and confidence limits, that are of apparent sensible significance.

The sensible use of particular graphic paper, which frequently simplifies statistical remedy of check outcomes, can be emphasised.

Completely different examples on the planning and interpretation of high-voltage checks are given. Reference can be made to related suggestions of worldwide check requirements.

Understanding of the mechanism of ionization and breakdown in gases is of basic significance in excessive voltage engineering.

Chapter 4 offers with this matter and covers the basics of the kinetic concept of gases. That is adopted by an elementary introduction of the atomic construction of parts primarily based on Bohr’s mannequin.

Completely different ionization mechanisms are briefly launched. An in depth evaluation of the motion of an ion in an electrical subject is then offered, introducing the notions of drift velocity and mobility.

Sources of free electrons are briefly mentioned. The formulation of Townsend ionization and attachment coefficients is then described, which ends up in the event of electron avalanches. Onset situations for a self-sustained discharge are mentioned and Paschen’s legislation is launched.

The streamer criterion as a consequence of Loeb–Meek–Raether is then launched, which is helpful to account for the breakdown of lengthy gaps, significantly beneath impulse voltages.

The glow is mentioned as one of many self-sustained discharges. That is adopted by a piece that offers with the basics of corona discharge in air, describing the modes of corona discharge in air beneath optimistic and destructive polarities.

AC corona is briefly mentioned, adopted by an introduction to corona results on an overhead line conductor, together with radio noise, audible noise, and corona losses.

Lastly, an account of breakdown in electronegative gases with specific reference to SF6 is offered. Information of the breakdown traits of lengthy air gaps is important for figuring out air clearances in transmission traces and substations.

Chapter 5 offers with this matter. Air hole breakdown traits are offered for lightning and switching impulses, working dc or ac voltage, in addition to beneath composite stresses.

Fundamental air hole configurations embody rod–airplane, rod–rod, conductor–airplane, conductor–tower leg, and so forth.

Switching impulse breakdown traits of lengthy air gaps are addressed intimately as a consequence of their significance for EHV and UHV transmission system design.

Particular consideration is paid to modeling of the impact of atmospheric situations, air density, and humidity on lengthy air hole breakdown.

That is then in contrast with suggestions of worldwide requirements. Chapter 6 offers with the breakdown traits of insulating liquids, which assume main significance in transformers, underground cables, capacitors, in addition to in some circuit breakers.

The chapter features a temporary evaluation of the molecular construction and bodily properties of mineral and artificial oils.

It critiques the fundamental mechanisms of electrical conduction and breakdown in pure insulating liquids. That is adopted by an outline of the breakdown mechanism in business oils, with a reference to the function performed by gasoline bubbles and stable particles.

Strong–liquid composite programs and quick oil gaps are mentioned with a concentrate on streamer breakdown. Breakdown in lengthy oil gaps consists of the function of initiation and propagation by chief discharge.

Particular consideration is paid to transformer oil, specifically to the impact of humidity and particle contamination on breakdown power.

Statistical interpretation of the breakdown mechanism in oil accounts for burdened space and burdened quantity results.

Lastly, the chapter concludes with a dialogue on ageing and decomposition of oil by-products. Chapter 7 features a evaluation of breakdown mechanism in stable and composite insulation programs.

It introduces the ideas of intrinsic breakdown, preliminary breakdown, and breakdown as a consequence of ageing and incipient faults.

It additionally introduces the notion of composite (electrical, thermal, and mechanical)  stress. The chapter offers with the molecular construction and bodily and chemical properties of a number of stable insulating supplies, together with polyethylene, cross-linked polyethylene, pure rubber, silicon rubber, and so forth.

The construction and bodily and chemical properties of the oil– paper system are described. The impact of temperature and water content material is launched.

Enhancements to the oil–paper insulating system are described, together with use of artificial paper and oil with diminished flammability.

The construction of an SF6-epoxy spacer system is described. Components affecting breakdown power resembling gasoline stress, conductor floor roughness, and particle contamination are additionally mentioned.

Chapter 8 offers with conductor bundle choice for overhead transmission traces, with a concentrate on corona efficiency.

Electrostatic subject optimization of the bundle conductors is launched, significantly just about EHV and UHV ac transmission traces.

It accounts for electrical and magnetic floor fields within the neighborhood of the road. The corona loss (CL) mechanism is offered along with the idea of producing operate.

The radio interference (RI) mechanism is described with means for each calculation and measurements. RI on three-phase conductor programs is accounted for by modal evaluation.

TV interference (TVI) mechanism is described briefly. Strategies of calculation and measurement of audible noise (AN) are described, with an outline of AN efficiency of some EHV traces.

The general process for conductor choice is briefly described, along with long-term corona efficiency. Lastly, HVDC conductor design is offered.

Lightning incidence and lightning safety are lined in Chapter 9. The chapter begins with a quick introduction to the mechanism of cloud charging.

That is adopted by a evaluation of meteorological knowledge related to lightning strikes in addition to an introduction to lightning detection and location programs.

A bit is dedicated to lightning flash parameter waveforms, together with return stroke present amplitude, with specific reference to such parameters.

The mechanism of lightning attachment is launched with a concentrate on the destructive downward flash. Return stroke fashions are briefly launched, together with the socalled engineering fashions.

Lightning attachment fashions are offered together with the electrogeometric mannequin in addition to the more moderen upward optimistic connecting chief fashions.

Each shielding failure and backflashovers are mentioned. Upward flash from tall buildings is described, significantly the modeling of such flashes and the outstanding function performed by the statistical nature of the bottom subject as a consequence of cloud prices, with out the participation of a downward stepped chief.

Protecting measures towards publicity to lightning strikes, together with lightning rods and masts, are described along with new, passive fieldsensitive air terminals in addition to the normal function performed by overhead floor wires.

An introductory part offers with line arrester functions. Lastly, a piece introduces the results of lightning publicity on optimistic streamer inhibition.

Chapter 10 offers with insulators of high-voltage transmission traces. The chapter begins with a evaluation of insulator sorts and supplies, together with ceramic and polymeric insulators.

 

That is adopted by a piece on {the electrical} efficiency of high-voltage insulators beneath customary and nonstandard lightning impulses in addition to customary switching impulses beneath dry and moist situations.

An in depth part offers with the air pollution flashover of insulators beneath system working voltage, which is usually the designing issue of transmission line insulator strings, significantly beneath dc voltage.

Contamination is offered as an interplay between insulator form and materials and the setting. Examples are given for desert and marine air pollution.

Polymeric insulator floor is characterised by hydrophobicity that may be assessed by contact angle measurements.

Mathematical fashions for polluted insulator flashover mechanisms are offered for each dc and ac energization.

Outcomes of air pollution efficiency of high-voltage insulators are offered on the premise of each laboratory and subject checks.

The mechanical necessities for high-voltage insulators are briefly launched with a concentrate on worldwide requirements.

Lastly, a process for choosing insulators is described with due consideration to the statistical nature of the flashover mechanism and with the target of satisfying a given efficiency criterion.

Chapter 11 begins with a quick account of underground cable improvement and building, which incorporates paper–oil, pressurized oil-filled paper-impregnated cables, high-pressure oil-filled cables (HPOF), and mass impregnated cables.

It offers with the development of extruded insulation cables and pressurized gasoline cables, together with inflexible gas-insulated cables (traces).

Future traits are offered together with pressured cooling and the usage of artificial paper. Electrical subject distribution in ac cable insulation is analyzed and electrical parameters are offered, together with transmission capability and important cable size.

Examples of conductor and insulation dimensions are supplied. AC conductor losses are mentioned, with a concentrate on pores and skin and proximity results. Sheath losses are offered in addition to cross bonding and thermal dissipation.

The process of insulation dimensioning is mentioned primarily based on the notion of a restrict face up to subject. Ageing and incipient faults in several types of cables are additionally described.

Consideration is paid to electrical ageing, significantly partial discharges, water and electrical treeing, in addition to cost injection as a consequence of contaminants, defects, protrusions, and voids.

A short part offers with gas-insulated substations (GIS), which covers the era mechanism of very quick transients (VFT).

Issues offered embody operation at low temperatures and the usage of SF6-N2 gasoline mixtures. Cable equipment of various cable designs together with joints, terminations, and wall bushings are launched.

A closing part offers with HVDC cables and equipment. Chapter 12 offers with energy transformers. After a quick introduction on fundamental design concerns, the principle matter of transformer insulation is offered.

The principal insulation system is that of paper–oil, and the fundamental preparations of layer winding and disc-type coil winding are launched.

Interwinding insulation, winding to earth insulation, and bushings are mentioned. That is adopted by a quick introduction to working voltage and impulse voltage stresses.

The bodily properties of oil-impregnated paper are offered. Enhancements to such conventional insulation programs embody the usage of polymer-based paper, low inflammability oil, and SF6 insulation.

Dimensioning concerns of oil–paper insulation comply with. The ideas of cumulative stress and probabilistic features of breakdown result in space and quantity results.

That is adopted by a piece on audible noise from energy transformers, together with the notion of acoustic energy and near- and far-field audible noise.

Customary high-voltage checks, together with utilized potential, induced voltage, and partial discharge measurement, in addition to customary lightning impulse check, chopped wave check, and switching impulse check, are described.

Of particular significance is fault detection throughout impulse checks. The switch operate methodology can be briefly mentioned.

Ageing and incipient faults, together with an introduction to totally different mechanisms resembling thermal, electrical, and environmental ageing, are lined.

Lastly, diagnostic strategies throughout operation and upkeep together with the willpower of water content material, particle counting, and gas-in-oil evaluation are mentioned.

Chapter 13 begins with a definition of insulation coordination as supplied by IEC. It distinguishes between exterior and inside insulation and between self-restoring and non-self-restoring insulation.

That is adopted by a classification of voltages and overvoltages and their origin. The idea of consultant overvoltages is launched.

The process of insulation coordination is defined with regard to phase-to-earth and phase-to-phase overvoltages.

Mathematical modeling of important switching impulse phase-to-phase air insulation is roofed. Section-to-phase overvoltage distribution is mentioned, primarily based on a bivariate regular likelihood density operate, which is used to find out the consultant phaseto-phase overvoltage.

Quick-front overvoltages are described, with a concentrate on the impinging surge right into a substation. Each the strategies of deterministic face up to voltage and the statistical strategy primarily based on the danger of failure are launched.

In figuring out the required face up to voltage, each altitude corrections and the idea of security issue are briefly reviewed.

The number of customary face up to voltage from IEC customary tables is briefly described, with due consideration to conversion elements between totally different check strategies.

The chapter concludes with an outline of surge arresters, that are nearly fully of the metal-oxide sort.

Chapter 14 offers with the huge matter of high-voltage testing and measuring strategies. It begins with an introduction of check classes, together with sort, routine, and particular checks.

Demonstrations in addition to on-site and commissioning checks are additionally offered. Technology of check voltages can be lined intimately.

AC check sources embody transformer cascades and resonant circuits. Rectifier bridges for the era of high-voltage dc are described, with a concentrate on the cascade rectifier circuit.

An impulse-generating circuit is described just about a multistage generator. Circuit evaluation explains the era of normal and switching impulse voltages.

Using cascade transformers for the era of lengthy entrance switching impulses can be described.

A evaluation of high-voltage measurement strategies, together with floor and electromagnetic shielding and stipulations for performing interference-free measurements is offered.

It covers the traditional sphere hole and then describes the response traits of voltage dividers. It additionally describes totally different divider configurations, together with resistive, capacitive, and the broadly used compensated R–C divider.

The low voltage arm is studied intimately. Present measuring shunts are additionally mentioned. Energy loss measurements are described utilizing the Schering bridge.

An necessary component right here is the usual compressed gasoline capacitor. The fundamental present comparator bridge is launched adopted by a piece on partial discharge measurement.

The 2 present approaches of obvious cost and radio affect voltage (RIV) are additionally mentioned.

Lastly, the chapter ends with an introduction to digital measuring strategies.

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