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Innovations in Bridge Engineering Technology by Khaled
Bridge Engineering Technology Contents
- Concrete segmental & post-tensioned bridges
- Cable-supported bridges
- Seismic evaluation and design
- Bridge design, fabrication & testing
- Bridge development & rehabilitation
- Bridge inspection, monitoring and situation evaluation
- Bridge historical past and aesthetics
Preface to Innovations in Bridge Engineering Technology
In the previous few years, outstanding technological advances have been achieved in bridge engineering expertise.
These cowl a large spectrum of points, starting from design, upkeep, and rehabilitation methodologies to materials and monitoring improvements.
Inside a world framework of exchanging the state-of-the-art in the sphere of bridge engineering, the Fourth New York Metropolis Bridge Convention was held on August 27–28, 2007. This e-book accommodates a specific variety of papers that had been offered on the convention.
These papers are useful contributions to the physique of data in bridge engineering expertise.
The Fourth New York Metropolis Bridge Convention was distinguished for its international impression. Bridge engineering specialists offered papers from Belgium, Canada, Croatia, England, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Lebanon, Northern Eire, Scotland, Switzerland, Taiwan and Turkey.
These, together with a listing of outstanding bridge engineering professionals from america, will guarantee the archival high quality of this e-book.
The proceedings lead off with a paper by Forde and Ohtsu on the “Worldwide state of follow in the inspection of grouted duct post-tensioned concrete bridge beams and decks”. Put up-tensioned concrete bridges have been used for each rail and highway bridges for some forty years. Issues had been first observed with highway bridges attributable to using de-icing salts.
Nonetheless, there have been collapses of post-tensioned concrete railway bridges. Following these collection of collapses, the Highways Company in the UK enforced a ban on the development of post-tensioned bridges with metallic tendon ducts.
The moratorium was lifted with the introduction of plastic tendon ducts. The paper focuses on the evaluation of impact-echo NDT of concrete beams with plastic tendon ducts – utilizing each a standard frequency area evaluation and utilizing the Japanese SIBIE (Stack Imaging of Spectral Amplitudes Based mostly on Affect-Echo) methodology.
The authors present that the SIBIE methodology of research reveals nice promise in testing these beforehand tough to examine plastic tendon ducts, utilizing impact-echo. Segmental bridges are generally used in the final thirty years as a part of trendy roads and highways in Croatia.
Throughout common and preventive bridge inspections some defects had been detected. In “Sturdiness of concrete segmental bridges” Banic et al current typical forms of concrete segmental bridges constructed in Croatia, forms of development and situation state of a number of forms of segmental bridges.
Situation of these buildings was decided throughout bridge inspections carried out in the final 5 years. Attribute damages of segmental bridges, rehabilitation procedures utilized in a number of instances and likewise some enhancements on new buildings are offered.
In “Cyclic assessments of precast segmental unbonded post-tensioned concrete bridge piers”, Ou et al current an experimental examine on the seismic efficiency of precast segmental unbonded post-tensioned concrete bridge piers.
The pier specimen consists of a basis, 4 hole column segments and 5.7-meter excessive pier cap. The prestressing tendons are positioned contained in the hole core of the pier column and therefore are unbonded with the encircling concrete.
Within the first pier specimen, no delicate metal reinforcement is prolonged throughout the column phase joints.
Within the different two specimens, longitudinal delicate metal bars, additionally known as vitality dissipation bars or ED bars, anchored on the basis and prolonged as much as the pier cap, are added to boost the seismic vitality dissipation.
The take a look at outcomes confirmed that every one the pier specimens exhibited passable ductile habits. The hysteretic vitality dissipation, lateral energy and residual drift upon unloading of the specimens elevated with the rise of the quantity of ED bars.
The Jamestown-Verrazzano Bridge over Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, USA, incorporates a 1,509 meter-long prestressed segmental field girder fundamental bridge with 23 spans various in size from 33 meter to 194 meter, and a 732 meter-long trestle construction.
The bridge was open to site visitors in 1992 and a baseline inspection was carried out in 1999. The scope of the baseline inspection included evaluation, load score, and comparability of creep deflections based mostly upon as-built store drawings, and casting and stressing schedules versus field-surveyed circumstances.
Throughout subsequent inspections nondestructive and damaging strategies had been used to research the post-tensioning ducts for the presence of voids.
Over 28,000 meters of nondestructive impact-echo (sonic/ultrasonic) measurements had been taken on the concrete high slab, webs and backside slab containing the tendons to judge the grouted tendon ducts for voids.
Of the roughly 1,520 tendon ducts examined, 7.5% or 114 tendon ducts had been decided to have voids. Void lengths ranged from 0.3 meter to over 94 meters. Typically the tendons had been grout lined however a few of the tendons had been uncovered and exhibited corrosion.
On the time of development, grouting strategies weren’t all the time absolutely efficient. Presently, voids in post-tensioned ducts are a difficulty for a variety of bridge homeowners.
Different repairs embody use of epoxy-injection with CFRP reinforcement system for the cracked webs of the segmental field girder pier tables.
Of their paper “Inspection and rehabilitation of Jamestown-Verrazzano segmental concrete bridge”, Abrahams et al talk about these findings and repairs which are at the moment underway.
Cable-supported bridges are notable for his or her aesthetic enchantment and talent to hyperlink lengthy spans. Lots of the points related to these buildings require thorough research previous to development.
In “Final capability of suspension bridges with arbitrary imperfect towers”, Inoue investigates the distinction of final capability of suspension bridge as a result of imperfection of towers.
The measurements of tower deviations from the best place for constructed suspension bridges, primarily in Japan, have been studied and the tendencies of imperfection have been categorized into differing kinds.
The impact of tower imperfection for the last word capability has been investigated by 1-1/2 order analyses utilizing 2-D bridge mannequin. 4 forms of imperfect tower with the totally different imperfect shapes had been modeled on the freestanding place.
Lastly, the distinction of final capability among the many imperfect fashions is summarized and a few remarks are provided for extra dependable and economical bridge in the long run. The brand new development in design of footbridges in Turkey is to make the most of cables.
A few of these bridges have faux cables whereas others partially depend on the cable system. These metal composite bridges sometimes constructed over highways span about 40 to 60 meters.
It was noticed that the bridges with faux cables may be considerably heavier than those with useful cables.
In “Cable supported footbridge evaluation with development staging”, Caner research the significance of tensioning sequence of cables and impression of development staging on the design forces at superstructure to have economical designs.
A case examine is illustrated for instance design. Locked coil cable assemblies are used in cable supported highway bridges (e.g. as suspenders in suspension bridges and hangers in arch bridges) and a big number of pedestrian and cycle bridges.
Regardless of of a number of installations all around the world and up to date product enhancements, locked coil cable assemblies are usually not so well-known in the USA. Lately, elevated demand for the product has been noticed.
In “Locked coil cable assemblies for bridges”, Bechtold et al introduce an outline about current and previous functions of locked coil cables.
Isolation bearings have turn out to be a regular software for engineers designing bridges in seismic areas. Nonetheless, the added complication of chilly climate has raised considerations with rubber isolators and their efficiency in northern areas of america.
Because of this, bridge designers are migrating in direction of sliding isolation bearings (SIB) in these areas. SIB have been confirmed to be value efficient and excessive damping gadgets on quite a few tasks to this point.
Watson describes the analysis that led to the event of SIB. As well as a number of case histories might be reviewed in an effort to display SIB capabilities in low temperature environments.
Deformations on the order of 11 mm in the masonry plates of put in lead rubber isolation bearings had been noticed in a freeway bridge. Of the greater than 400 isolators in the undertaking, roughly 30 confirmed deformations better than 2 mm.
Because of the value, accessibility points and site visitors impacts of eradicating and changing the isolators, the Proprietor agreed to simply accept laboratory testing as a method to find out which results, if any, the deformation had on the properties of the lead core isolation bearings.
Jacak and Pezzotti current the “Outcomes of assessments carried out on lead-rubber seismic isolators with deformed masonry plates”. New bearings had been manufactured in accordance with the unique undertaking necessities.
The brand new bearings had been first examined to ascertain baseline properties and validate their compliance with the contract paperwork. Subsequently, the isolators had been deformed in the lab to attain an identical deformation as that noticed in the construction.
The bearings had been then examined in the deformed situation and the outcomes in comparison with the baseline properties. Soil-Construction interplay might play a serious function in the seismic response of a bridge construction.
Particularly, a big discount in soil stiffness and energy might consequence in everlasting displacement of the abutments and foundations, thus imposing necessary kinematic circumstances to bridge construction.
In “Humboldt Bay Center Channel Bridge: 3D bridgefoundations-ground system”, Trombetti et al present the results of this habits referring to the Humboldt Bay Center Channel Bridge, in California, USA.
The Finite Factor mannequin and nonlinear answer technique are constructed in the open-source software program plat-form OpenSees. The 3D nature of bridge response imposes vital computational challenges.
The soil is modeled as a nonlinear materials with a Von Mises multi-surface kinematic plasticity mannequin in order to breed elasto-plastic shear response.
The outcomes obtained utilizing 1978 Tabas earthquake document present that modifications in properties of the superficial soil layers dictate considerably totally different time histories of dynamic excitation on the numerous assist factors of the bridge (piers and abutments).
Bridge design methodologies have made vital strides attributable to technological advances in development, fabrication and testing methods.
The $210 million Florida Avenue Bridge undertaking is being designed to offer dependable entry between St.
Bernard and Orleans parishes over the Interior Harbor Navigational Canal (IHNC) in New Orleans, Louisiana.
The undertaking features a five-span high-level bridge over the IHNC with a 143-meter middle span. Bridge kind research had been accomplished to find out essentially the most viable construction kind.
Each cast-in-place segmental concrete field girder and metal plate girder alternates had been chosen for remaining design.
In “Design of Florida Avenue Bridge over the Interior Harbor Canal”, Nelson presents the design of the segmental concrete alternate.
The superstructure consists of a variable depth twin-cell field girder that’s supported by voided field column piers and metal HP piles.
The bridge might be constructed with type vacationers utilizing the balanced cantilever methodology of development. Warmth curving is extensively used for fabricating curved metal bridge I-girders. Curving is achieved by uneven heating of the flanges of the straight girder.
Warmth is utilized alongside the girder size repeatedly or intermittently with the heated width various from 1 /12 to 1 /4 of the flange width relying on the curvature. Curvature develops after the girder cools to ambient circumstances.
Present follow limits the utmost temperature to 620o C for typical Grades 250 and 345 steels. The “Information for Freeway Bridge Fabrication with HPS 485W Metal” recommends investigating warmth curving of HPS 485W at 705o C.
Of their paper “Warmth curving HPS 485W bridge I-girders”, Gergess and Sen consider the validity of the 705o C temperature utilizing non-linear finite factor evaluation. Different fabrication points referring to warmth curving stiffened and hybrid girders are additionally addressed.
Outcomes present that the utmost temperature may be considerably decrease. Stiffeners might cut back the curvature by as much as 10% whereas hybrid girders with high and backside flanges made of various metal grades require totally different heating profiles.
In “Testing of a novel versatile concrete arch system”, Taylor et al describe the testing of a versatile masonry concrete arch system which requires no centering in the development section or metal reinforcement in the longterm.
The arch is constructed from a ‘flat pack’ system by use of a polymer reinforcement for supporting the self-weight of the concrete voussoirs and behaves as a masonry arch as soon as in the arch type.
The paper outlines the development of a prototype arch and cargo testing of the backfilled arch ring. Some comparisons to the outcomes from evaluation software program have been made.
The arch had a load carrying capability far in extra of the present British Highways Company design wheel hundreds. The Nice River Bridge, constructed in 1939, is positioned in downtown Westfield, a Metropolis in Western Massachusetts, USA.
The by way of truss bridge is a landmark for the Metropolis, forming maybe essentially the most distinctive construction in the downtown space. The undertaking scope was initially restricted to the rehabilitation of the 112 meter lengthy, two-span construction.
Nonetheless the undertaking has grown to incorporate the design of two different bridge buildings, 4 landscaped parks, a number of thousand ft of city roadway, and two miles of railroad monitor.
In “Westfield Nice River Bridge”, Ennis presents the totally different elements of the undertaking. The State Route 62 Bridge over Crooked Fork Creek in Morgan County, Tennessee, USA, was initially designed in 1940.
After greater than six a long time of service to the residents of this rural group, the bridge had turn out to be structurally poor and functionally out of date.
The Tennessee Division of Transportation (TDOT) determined an in depth rehabilitation was wanted to deal with the structural issues and enhance its performance.
The undertaking entailed an entire substitute of the unique superstructure in addition to restore and modification of the prevailing substructure models.
In “Renewing the Crooked Fork Creek Bridge”, Wilson describes the undertaking which was achieved with out development inside the channel of the creek.
To keep away from the necessity for a prolonged detour, development actions had been phased and site visitors management designed in order that one lane of site visitors could possibly be maintained throughout the bridge all through the period of the undertaking.
The growing old freeway bridge repeatedly renewed whereas accommodating site visitors circulation. The touring public calls for that this rehabilitation and substitute to be finished extra rapidly to cut back congestion and enhance security.
Standard bridge reconstruction is often on the essential path due to the sequential, labor-intensive processes of finishing the inspiration, the substructure, the superstructure infrastructure in america is being subjected to rising site visitors volumes and should be elements, railings, and different equipment.
Bridge programs can permit elements to be fabricated off website and moved into place rapidly whereas sustaining site visitors circulation.
Relying on the precise website circumstances, using prefabricated bridge programs can reduce site visitors disruption, enhance work-zone security, reduce impression to the atmosphere, enhance constructability, improve high quality, and decrease life-cycle prices.
In “Speedy supply! New Jersey overnights bridge rehabilitation for Trenton Bridges” Capers and Cheng talk about the adopted method to the substitute of the superstructures of two structurally poor bridges carrying a freeway part of Route US 1 by way of the capitol metropolis of Trenton, New Jersey, USA.
The Route 70 over Manasquan River Bridge substitute undertaking utilized an revolutionary precast substructure answer on a undertaking requiring tough coordination of freeway and marine site visitors, environmental constraints and group involvement.
The 7.6-meter excessive, 220.7-meter lengthy bridge, which is supported on 5 architecturally handled precast Excessive Efficiency Concrete (HPC) in-water piers, crosses a navigable waterway in the coastal area of the State of New Jersey, USA.
The precast pier column and cap elements had been fabricated offsite, delivered by way of barges and vehicles and assembled utilizing post-tensioning.
Pier foundations had been constructed on the waterline inside precast concrete cofferdam shells, which supplied pile driving templates, served as architecturally handled formwork for the footings and eradicated development of conventional cofferdams.
Yermack presents the main points of the undertaking in his paper “Accelerated development of precast concrete piers on the Route 70 over Manasquan River Bridge substitute undertaking”.
Stainless-steel reinforcing has been used in quite a few buildings all through North America.
Current advances in concrete expertise have supplied structural designers with supplies which might simply final over 100 years, and the lifetime of many concrete buildings right this moment is proscribed by the reinforcing.
Enhancements in the lifetime of the reinforcing may be translated straight into prolonged lifetime of the construction. Present projections by a number of transportation businesses present that using stable chrome steel reinforcing bar in bridge decks will greater than double the lifetime of the bridge deck.
Whereas stable chrome steel reinforcing bar can improve the price of the bridge deck by as a lot as 12% (in comparison with carbon metal reinforcing), the financial worth of the longer life outweighs the preliminary greater value.
In “Enhancing tomorrow’s infrastructure: extending the lifetime of concrete buildings with stable chrome steel reinforcing bar”, Schnell and Bergmann talk about corrosion resistance and value saving provided by using stainless reinforcing.
The paper “Use of structural well being monitoring methods for a forensic examine of bridge accidents”, by Yun, presents an outline of a real-time web-based steady monitoring system for the Vincent Thomas Bridge.
An efficient multi-thread bridge monitoring system structure is proven. Utilizing the bridge monitoring system, the bridge response to earthquakes, bridge-ship collision and ambient vibration was measured, and the bridge modal frequencies had been efficiently decided with vibration-based identification strategies.
In “Bridge Administration and Inspection System for Montgomery County, Maryland”, Shaffer and Schellhase cowl an outline of the county’s wants and the options which have been developed to considerably enhance each the inspection and administration processes.
Digital varieties had been created to satisfy the county’s necessities, essentially the most rigorous in the state of Maryland, USA, and thus permitting for entry of all data from the inspection.
Inspection of bridge decks usually depends on visible inspection and use of fundamental non-destructive testing methods. Evaluation sometimes includes comparability of noticed situation with pre-defined situation states.
Present situation states require little quantitative information and should apply throughout many various materials sorts and bridge components. Use of these kind of subjective methods might result in unsure evaluation of construction situation.
That is notably true when evaluating totally different buildings or buildings assessed by totally different personnel.
One enchancment that could be thought-about to cut back the uncertainty or subjectivity of the present course of is the introduction of quantitative measures inside the situation states.
In “Goal situation states for concrete bridge deck evaluation”, Knight discusses situation states developed for evaluation of concrete cast-in-place bridge decks.
The proposed situation states embody fundamental quantitative data and deal with particular types of deterioration constantly recognized throughout inspection.
The Brooklyn Bridge stands as a monument of bridge engineering, and whereas simply accessible to the general public, entry for structural inspection is tough.
As a part of the 2006 biennial inspection of the Bridge, an in depth masonry inspection of the Manhattan and Brooklyn towers was carried out utilizing rope entry methods to look at areas beforehand investigated solely by way of distant visible strategies.
In “The 2006 rope entry inspection of the Brooklyn Bridge towers: a brand new view of an outdated bridge”, Schmidt discusses the entry strategies employed for an in depth inspection of the bridge tower masonry.
Challenges included performing this work with out including anchors to the towers, registration of inspection findings on a large masonry construction in a repeatable format, and offering tactile inspection entry in stone overhangs, beneath metal walkways and inside recesses.
Bridge buildings stand as landmarks of aesthetics and monument of engineering ingenuity. On the theme of historic bridges, Melewski et al take the reader alongside a “Walkway over The Hudson (historic bridge to northeast leisure vacation spot)”.
The paper discusses the historic significance of the Poughkeepsie Railroad Bridge, which was opened in 1888. It was the longest bridge in the world when the primary prepare crossed it.
As the primary bridge constructed throughout the Hudson River between New York Metropolis and Albany, the bridge had an unlimited impression on transportation all through the Northeast United States.
After a protracted historical past of possession and makes use of, the bridge suffered injury from a fireplace in 1974 that rendered it unusable for railroad site visitors.
A complete examine has begun to certify structural integrity and to supply a plan to ascertain it as a public park and walkway, in addition to a bridge engineering academic useful resource.
The paper offers a short historic overview, discusses the aims of the great examine and the findings of the late 2006 underwater inspections.
In “Aesthetics and sturdiness elements in the conclusion of small and medium span arch bridges” Siviero and Zanchettin current the significance of perform and its concord with the encircling atmosphere.
The authors talk about the worth of aesthetics inside the context of lengthy lasting sturdiness. In January of 1886, an American contractor,
Union Bridge Firm of New York Metropolis, gained a world competitors to design and construct a two-track metal railroad bridge of roughly 3,000 ft in size over the Hawkesbury River in New South Wales, about 30 miles north of Sydney, Australia.
On the time it was the most important public works undertaking in the southern hemisphere. In his paper “Hawkesbury Railway Bridge close to Sydney, Australia”, Gandhi provides a background of this undertaking; particulars of 14 designs submitted by totally different contestants from England, France, Australia, and the US; development strategies; key people concerned in this undertaking; difficulties encountered throughout development; and its profitable completion.
The bridge was accomplished in 34 months and opened to site visitors with nice fanfare in Could 1889. It linked the north and south areas of Australia.
The bridge was strengthened a number of occasions and in the end changed in 1946. Tasks aware of the aim and desires outlined by the stakeholders generate better participation and possession in the undertaking.
Involving the group early builds assist and minimizes resistance that generally develops in response to vary.
Officers profit by serving to the general public anticipate development with the data that any inconvenience might be rewarded by a construction that’s aware of the precise wants of the group.
In “Historic bridge substitute: a collaborative method to context delicate design”, Piotrowski and Chamberlin current architect’s expertise in the substitute of the Royal Park Bascule Bridge, Florida, USA.
The contributions of an excellent physique of technical specialists from all around the world make sure the archival worth of this set of proceedings.
The offered materials in this quantity displays state-of-the-art improvements in bridge engineering expertise. The editor thanks the authors and expresses a particular observe of gratitude to the reviewers.
This quantity is a results of the sacrifice of effort and time, dedication and collective knowledge of all contributors.
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