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Introduction to Applied Colloid and Surface Chemistry by Georgios M. Kontogeorgis and Soren Kiil
Most important Contents of Introduction to Applied Colloid and Surface Chemistry eBook
– Introduction to Colloid and Surface Chemistry.
– Intermolecular and Interparticle Forces.
– Surface and Interfacial Tensions – Rules and Estimation Strategies.
– Basic Equations in Colloid and Surface Science.
– Surfactants and Self-assembly. Detergents and Cleansing.
– Wetting and Adhesion.
– Adsorption in Colloid and Surface Science – A Common Idea.
– Characterization Strategies of Colloids – Half I: Kinetic Properties and Rheology.
– Characterization Strategies of Colloids.
– Optical Properties (Scattering, Spectroscopy and Microscopy).
– Colloid Stability.
– The Main Gamers (van der Waals and Electrical Forces).
– The DLVO Principle – Kinetics of Aggregation.
– Multicomponent Adsorption.
– Sixty Years with Theories for Interfacial Rigidity – Quo Vadis?.
– Epilogue and Overview Issues.
Preface to Introduction to Applied Colloid and Surface Chemistry eBook
Colloid and floor chemistry is a topic of immense significance and has implications each to our on a regular basis life and to quite a few industrial sectors from paints and supplies to drugs and biotechnology.
After we observe nature, we’re impressed by mosquitos and different small bugs that may stroll on water however are drawn into the water when detergents (soaps) are added of their neighbourhood.
We’re fascinated by the spherical form of water and much more by the mercury droplets that may roll round with out wetting something.
We all know that for a similar causes we must always use plastic raincoats when it’s raining. We’re additionally impressed by a few of pure wonders just like the “delta” created by rivers after they meet the ocean and the nonsticky wings and leaves of butterflies, lotus and another bugs and vegetation.
We’re additionally fascinated by the blue color of the sky and the crimson color of the sundown. After we are at house we’re continually surrounded by questions associated to colloids or interfaces.
We want to understand how detergents actually clear. Why can we not simply use water? Can we use the detergents at room temperature? Why do we regularly clear at excessive temperatures?
Why achieve this many merchandise have an expiration date (shelf-life) of some days or perhaps weeks? Why can’t milk final for ever? And why this “milky” color that milk has? Is it the identical factor with the well-known drink Ouzo?
Why does Ouzo’s color change from clear to cloudy once we add water? And what about salt? Why does it have such massive impact on meals and on our blood stress?
Why can we so typically use eggs for making sauces? Those that have visited the well-known VASA museum in Stockholm are impressed by the big efforts made in preserving this ship, which sank 400 years in the past, after it was taken out of the ocean.
Why was an answer of poly(ethylene glycol) spayed on the ship? After all, related issues happen in industries that target the event and manufacturing of a variety of merchandise starting from paints, high-tech supplies, detergents to prescribed drugs and meals.
As well as, right here it’s not simply curiosity that drives the questions! Paint industries want to manufacture improved coatings that may be utilized to many various surfaces however they need to even be environmentally pleasant, e.g. needs to be much less primarily based on natural solvents and if doable solely on water.
Meals firms are enthusiastic about growing wholesome, tasty but in addition long-lasting meals merchandise that enchantment to each the environmental authorities and the patron.
Detergent and enzyme firms have labored lately, typically collectively, to develop improved cleansing formulations containing each surfactants and enzymes that may clear significantly better than earlier than,
engaged on extra persistent stains, at decrease temperatures and quantities, to the advantage of each the atmosphere and our pocket! Cosmetics can be massive enterprise.
A lot of lotions, lotions and different private care merchandise are complicated emulsions and the businesses concerned are enthusiastic about optimizing their efficiency in all respects and even connecting client’s reactions to merchandise traits.
Some firms, typically impressed by nature’s unbelievable powers as seen in some vegetation and bugs, are enthusiastic about designing floor therapy strategies that can lead to self-cleaning surfaces or self-ironing garments;
surfaces that don’t want detergents, garments that don’t want ironing! There are lots of extra different questions and purposes! Why can we get extra oil from underground by injecting surfactants?
Can we ship medicine for particular circumstances in higher and managed methods? The entire above and really far more have their clarification and understanding within the ideas and strategies of colloid and floor chemistry.
Such a course is actually helpful to chemists, chemical engineers, biologists, materials and meals scientists and many extra.
It’s each a multi- and interdisciplinary subject, and as a course it should serve numerous wants and necessities, relying on the profile of the scholars.
This makes it an thrilling subject to educate but in addition a really tough one. Sadly, as Woods and Wasan (1996) confirmed of their survey amongst American universities, a comparatively small variety of universities educate the course in any respect!
This can be a downside, as a number of universities strive to “press” ideas of colloid and floor chemistry (particularly the floor rigidity, capillarity, contact angle and a couple of extra) into common bodily chemistry programs.
That is no good! That is no means to educate colloids and interfaces. This thrilling subject is a science by itself and deserves at the very least one full undergraduate course and after all appropriate books that can be utilized as textbooks.
This brings us to the second main problem, which is to have an appropriate e book for educating a course to undergraduate college students of a (technical) college.
Greater than ten years in the past, we had been requested to educate a 5 ECTS idea course on colloids and interfaces on the Technical College of Denmark (DTU).
The time allotted for a typical 5 ECTS level (ECTS = European Credit score System) course at DTU is one four-hour block every week throughout a 13 week semester, adopted by an examination.
This course is a part of the worldwide program of our college, sometimes initially of M.Sc. research (seventh–eighth semester) and might be adopted by college students of various M.Sc. applications (Superior and Applied Chemistry, Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Petroleum Engineering).
B.Sc. college students in direction of the top of their research can even observe the course. In Denmark, college students submit a written nameless analysis of the course on the finish of semester, offering suggestions on the educating strategies and course content material, together with course materials (books used).
Our expertise from 12 years of educating the course is that we discovered it notably tough to select an appropriate textbook that would fulfil the course necessities and be interesting to totally different audiences and the rising variety of college students.
This will likely seem to be a “harsh remark”. To start with, there are numerous specialised books in numerous areas of colloid and floor chemistry, e.g. Jonsson et al. (2001) on surfactants and Israelachvili (2001) on floor forces.
These and different glorious books are of curiosity to researchers and additionally to college students as supplementary materials however will not be appropriate –and we don’t suppose they had been meant by these authors to be – as a stand-alone textbook for a common colloid and floor chemistry course.
Then, there are some books, for instance Hunter (1993) and Barnes and Light (2005), that focus both solely on colloid or on floor science.
There are, nonetheless, a number of books that, roughly, goal to cowl a big a part of a typical colloid and floor chemistry curriculum. Examples are these written by Shaw (1992), Goodwin (2004), Hamley (2000), Myers (1991) and Pashley and Karaman (2004).
A few of these might and are certainly used as textbooks for colloid and floor chemistry programs. Every of those books has naturally their very own strengths and weaknesses.
Now we have reported our impressions and these of our college students on the textbooks which we’ve used within the course through the years in a earlier publication (Kontogeorgis and Vigild, 2009) the place we additionally focus on different facets of educating colloids and interfaces.
What we are able to state, considerably typically, is that not like different disciplines of chemical engineering (which we all know properly, each of us being chemical engineers) we lack in colloid and floor chemistry what we might name “classical type” textbooks and with an utilized flavour.
In different fields of chemical engineering, e.g. unit operations, thermodynamics, response engineering and course of management, there are textbooks with a transparent construction and labored out examples together with idea and quite a few workouts for sophistication or homework apply.
We couldn’t generalize that “all is properly finished” within the textbooks for thus many various disciplines, however we do see in most of the classical textbooks for different disciplines many widespread options which can be helpful to academics and after all additionally to college students.
Because the construction in a number of of those disciplines and their textbooks can be fairly established, issues seem to be offered in a roughly clean and well-structured means.
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