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Rock Grouting at Dam Sites by F. Ewert and U. Hungsberg
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Rock Grouting at Dam Sites by Friedrich-Karl Ewert and Ulrich Hungsberg PDF Free Download.
ISSN 2364-0081 (digital)
Skilled Follow in Earth Sciences
ISBN 978-3-319-64036-5 (eBook)
Library of Congress Management Quantity: 2017946961
Predominant Contents of Rock Grouting at Dam Sites PDF Ebook
- Water Circulate in Rock: Geometry of Water Conducting Paths and Lugeon-Values
- Examples of Grouting Applications
- Permeability Testing by Technique of Water Stress Exams
- Hydrofracturing of Latent Discontinuities in Rock and Implications for Profitable and Economical Execution of Grouting
- Groutability and Grouting of Rock
- Hydrogeological Regime Round Dams and Reservoirs
- Doubts in GIN Precept Confirmed
Introduction to Rock Grouting at Dam Sites PDF Ebook
Grouting utilized at dam websites as we speak is often carried out to consolidate the muse (‘consolidation grouting’), to seal the contact between rock and concrete (‘contact grouting’) and to tighten the rock right down to a sure depth (‘curtain grouting’).
The grouting of open fissures or different pure voids is known as ‘penetration grouting’, the grouting of latent discontinuities to realize a pre-stressing of the rock is known as ‘displacement grouting’, it’s largely utilized in tunnelling. This e-book deliberately offers with penetration grouting for curtains.
A complete literature is offered on the expertise of rock grouting, primarily coping with the process itself.
Nevertheless, ‘ grout’ must be the second query, the primary one must be ‘whether or not to grout, and the place, and how a lot’.
All this will depend on the hydrogeological scenario of your entire dam web site and on the groutability. The permeability of the rock surrounding a borehole is commonly not an identical with the permeability of a big rock mass and a permeable rock is just not essentially groutable.
These complexities have acquired too little consideration prior to now though they decide each the under-seepage and the success of the grouting work and they’re much extra difficult than technological points.
Due to this fact, coping with this primary query means analyzing whether or not the rock at the dam web site is permeable, whether or not this permeability determines your entire hydrogeological regime and whether or not the rock is groutable.
Rock plenty comprise an awesome number of completely altering circumstances. This makes it troublesome to acknowledge their permeability and groutability.
In penetration grouting, the duty is just not merely to press grout into the rock however to fill precise water paths—very often not the identical.
The primary activity is feasible most often, the latter is just not all over the place achieved, primarily as a result of the given groutability is just not duly thought of and grouting is commonly carried out fairly schematically as a substitute.
A comparability of many initiatives reveals that there’s hardly any recognizably constant idea in assessing the precise permeability and groutability of the rock or in sealing the muse by technique of grouting.
Generally even a good rock was extensively grouted whereas in different initiatives, additionally nicely performing, solely little grouting was executed regardless of an apparently excessive permeability.
Thus, there are causes to enhance the scenario by contemplating each the attainable variations between permeabilities of the native rock sections examined and the permeability of your entire dam basis in addition to the person groutabilities.
Optimistic examples show that there clearly exist potentialities to realize progress and additionally when it comes to a extra economical therapy.
Investigation strategies have now improved and a brand new idea of coping with this vital advanced can be accessible. Each are useful to keep away from schematic therapies.
After all, even improved strategies and ideas won’t ever meet the diploma of accuracy typically relevant in engineering, however, appreciable progress is achievable which will help to keep away from pointless measures.
Dams constructed a century in the past didn’t obtain a grout curtain however later, grouting has been utilized nearly at each dam.
The set up of a grout curtain all the time includes appreciable expense. It ought to solely be executed if vital. The choice to put in a grout curtain nonetheless relies upon largely on the outcomes of water strain assessments (WPT) launched by Lugeon.
Often a grouting program is carried out offered the amount of the water absorbed in a borehole (QWPT) exceeds 1 l/min/m/10 bar, known as “Lugeon-criterion” (i.e. 1 LU).
For a while, inconsistent observations have been made which elevate doubts as to the reliability and expediency of that criterion.
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