Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines PDF by Zoeb Husain, Mohd Zulkifly Abdullah and Zainal Alimuddin :: Fluid mechanics is concerned with the behaviour of liquids and gases at rest and in motion. The proper understanding of mechanics of fluids is important in many branches of engineering: in biomechanics the flow of blood is of interest; ocean currents require a knowledge offluid mechanics; chemical processing of plants require a thorough knowledge offluid mechanics; aeronautical engineers require knowledge of flow of air over the aircraft to reduce drag and increase lift; mechanical engineers require knowledge of fluid propel1ies to design pumps, water turbines, gas turbines and rockets;civil engineers require fluid mechanics to study river currents and erosion; and environmentalists require knowledge of fluid properties for solving pollution problems of air and water to control flood, irrigation channels, etc. There are special ised books on fluid mechanics for each of these areas and therefore this book will present only general properties of fluid flow.

Before we study fluid mechanics let us discuss the dimensions and units that will be used in this book. There are four fundamental dimensions: length, mass, time and temperature. The dimensions of all other quantities can be expressed in terms of fundamental dimensions. For example, Force can be expressed in terms of fundamental dimensions of mass,length and time. is significant. Mach number where compressibility is important in flows over aerofoils in aircraft.

The dimensionless parameters are also useful in design of prototypes from the models and can save a lot of money and effort. For example, a model can be prepared in a laboratory and tested, and predictions can be made of the prototype for large machines with the help of suitable dimensionless parameters. This is usually done in making models of large hydraulic machines used in power stations or in construction of big dams by making suitable models in the laboratory.

In fluid mechanics the pressure results from a normal compressive force acting on an area. The pressure p is defined as force per unit area. In SI units the unit of measurement of pressure is Newtons per square meter (N/m2 ) or Pascal (Pa). Since Pascal is small unit, the pressure is usually referred to in kilo Pascal (kPa) or even in Mega Pascal (M Pa). The standard atmospheric pressure at sea level is 101.3 kPa. The gauge pressure is the pressure recorded by the gauge or manometer. In engineering calculations absolute pressure is used and the conversion from gauge pressure to absolute pressure is carried out using the following equation.

Shear stresses are developed when the fluid is in motion; if the particles of the fluid move relative to each other, so that they have different velocities, causing the original shape of the fluid to become distorted. A fluid at rest has no shearing forces. Usually we are concerned with the flow past a solid boundary. The fluid in contact with the boundary sticks to it, and therefore will have the same velocity as the boundary. Considering successive layers parallel to the boundary as shown in Fig. 1.2, the velocity of the fluid varies from layer to layer in y-direction.

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Book Description:

Following a concise overview of fluid mechanics knowledgeable by numerous engineering applications and examples, this reference presents and analyzes main kinds of fluid equipment and the main courses of generators, in addition to pump expertise. It affords professionals and college students in hydraulic engineering with background ideas in addition to sensible protection of contemporary turbine technologies, fully explaining the advantages of both steam and fuel generators. Description, design, and operational data for the Pelton, Francis, Propeller, and Kaplan turbines are provided, as are outlines of varied types of power plants. It gives solved examples, chapter issues, and a thorough case examine.

About this Book:

Fluid mechanics is concerned with the behaviour of liquids and gases and is important in many branches of engineering biomechanics, oceanography, chemical, aeronautical, mechanical, and civil engineering including environmental studies. There are specialized books on fluid mechanics for each of these areas and therefore this book will present only general properties of fluid flow. The book examines various forms of energy, especially thermo and hydro power, and provides outlines of various types of power plants. An outstanding feature of the book is the classification of fluid mechanics. Contents Dimensions and Systems of Units Fluid Flow Thermal and Hydropower Stations Fluid Machinery Pelton Turbine Francis Turbine Propeller and Kaplan Turbines Turbo Pumps Positive Displacement Pumps.

Book Content:

Dimensions and Systems of Units

Dimensions and Units

Non-Dimensional Quantity

Pressure Scales

Fluid Properties

Surface Tension

CapilIary Action

Compressibility and Mach Number

Fluid Flow

Scope of Fluid Mechnanics

Laminar and Turbulent Flow

Momentum Equation for One-Dimensional and Two-Dimensional Flow

Jet Striking a Plate (3 cases)

Force Exerted when jet is Deflected by a Moving Vane

Euler’s and BernQullis Equations and Application of Bernoullis Equation

Thermal and Hydropower Stations

Steam Turbine and Gas Turbine Power Plant

Combined Cycle Power Plants and Hydropower Plants

Underground Power Plants and Surface Power Plant

Fluid Machinery

Classification of Fluid Machines

Pumps (Axial and Radial) and Compressors (Axial and Radial)

Turbines (Pelton Wheel, Francis Turbine,  Kaplan Turbine, Steam Turbines, Gas Turbine)

Euler’s Theory Applied to Turbo Machines

Pelton Turbine

Description of Pelton Turbine Installation and Analysis

Pelton Turbine Losses and Efficiencies

Regulating System of Pelton Wheel Power Station

Francis Turbine

Description of Francis Turbine and Analysis

Draft Tube

Working Proportions and Regulation of Francis Turbine

Specific Speed of hydraulic Turbines

Comparison between Pelton and Francis Turbines

Propeller and Kaplan Turbines

Description of Propeller Turbine and Kaplan Turbine

Analysis and Construction of Velocity Diagram

Twisted Blades

Comparison between Francis, Pelton and Kaplan Turbine

Turbo Pumps

Human Heart (Pump)

Description of Centrifugal Pump and Analysis

Cavitation and Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH)

Pumps in Series and Parallel

Matching Pumps to a System Demand

Axial Flow Pump

Positive Displacement Pumps

Description of a Reciprocating Pump and Analysis (Power Output, Pump Efficiency)

Application of Piston Pumps (Radial Piston Pump, Swashplate Pump, Wobble Plate Pump, Bent Axis Piston Pump and Gear Pump)

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