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The International Handbook of FRP Composites in Civil Engineering
Editor of The International Handbook of FRP Composites in Civil Engineering
Manoochehr Zoghi, a registered skilled engineer, acquired his bachelor of science and grasp of engineering levels in civil engineering from the J.B. Velocity Faculty of Engineering on the College of Louisville, Kentucky, in 1979 and 1981, respectively.
He acquired a health care provider of philosophy in civil engineering from the Faculty of Superior Constructions on the College of Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1988.
He’s at the moment pursuing his MBA in sustainability from the San Francisco Institute of Structure. Dr. Zoghi has had in depth educational, administrative, and consulting experiences.
He has served as a college and the graduate program director of the Division of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Engineering Mechanics on the College of Dayton.
Founding chair and professor of the Division of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Idaho State College; interim chair of the Division of Mechanical Engineering at California State College (CSU), Fresno.
And is at the moment the affiliate dean and professor of the Lyles Faculty of Engineering at CSU, Fresno. Previous to becoming a member of the academe, he labored as a structural engineer for a consulting agency of Lockwood, Jones and Beals, Inc..
In Dayton, Ohio, the place he was instrumental in analysis and growth of the patented CON/SPAN® Bridge Programs.
Professor Zoghi has taught all kinds of civil engineering, engineering mechanics, and building administration programs and has carried out analysis in interdisciplinary areas of infrastructure revitalization, nondestructive analysis, and structural well being monitoring, soil-structure interplay, geohazards, and geotechnical engineering.
He has acquired quite a few awards for his educating, analysis, and group service, together with the Ohio Society of Skilled Engineers’ Excellent Engineering Educator Award and the International Concrete Restore Institute’s Award of Excellence in the transportation class for his collaborative bridge restore and rehabilitation mission, sponsored by means of the Federal Freeway Administration’s Progressive Bridge Analysis and Development program.
A fellow of the American Society of Civil Engineers, a Coleman Fellow, and a diplomate of geotechnical engineering, Professor Zoghi has been cited in a number of who’s who indexes and is a Golden Key International honorary member.
He’s a member of the American Society of Engineering Schooling, previous president of the ASCE-Dayton Part, and an ABET (Accreditation Board for Engineering and Know-how, Inc.) program evaluator (PEV).
He additionally serves on a number of nationwide technical committees in addition to the Board of Trustees of the California Homebuilding Basis. A prolific writer, Dr. Zoghi has printed broadly.
He serves as an affiliate editor of the ASCE’s Journal of Supplies in Civil Engineering, an affiliate editor of the ASCE’s Journal of Skilled Points in Engineering Schooling and Observe, and is an editorial advisory panel member of the UK’s Establishment of Civil Engineers’ flagship journal.
FRP Composites in Civil Engineering Contents
Half I Composites Primer
- Chapter 1 Introduction
- Chapter 2 Manufacturing Processes and QA/QC
- Chapter 3 FRP Composite Constituent Supplies
- Chapter 4 Mechanics of Composite Supplies
- Chapter 5 Overview of Electroactive Polymers
- Chapter 6 Life Cycle Prices of Composite Supplies
Half II All-Composite Constructions and Parts
- Chapter 7 Supplies and Manufacturing
- Chapter 8 Evaluation of FRP Structural Members
- Chapter 9 Deck Panels and Girders for Bridge Purposes
- Chapter 10 Connection Design for FRP Structural Members
- Chapter 11 Examples and Case Research
Half III Externally Bonded FRP Composite Programs for Rehabilitation
- Chapter 12 Introduction
- Chapter 13 Composite Supplies Used in Rehabilitation
- Chapter 14 Flexural and Shear Strengthening of Bolstered Concrete Constructions
- Chapter 15 Rehabilitation with NSM FRP Reinforcement
- Chapter 16 Confinement of Bolstered Concrete Columns
- Chapter 17 Strengthening of Masonry and Metallic Constructions
- Chapter 18 Externally Bonded FRP Composite and Viscoelastic Supplies for Mitigating Vibrations of Ground Programs
- Chapter 19 Sturdiness
Half IV FRP Composites for Reinforcement of Concrete Constructions
- Chapter 20 Introduction
- Chapter 21 Materials Traits
- Chapter 22 Design Procedures
- Chapter 23 FRP Prestressed Concrete
- Chapter 24 Concrete Columns Bolstered Internally with Fiber Bolstered Polymer Bars
- Chapter 25 Codes and Requirements
- Chapter 26 Particular Sturdiness Points
- Chapter 27 High quality Assurance/High quality Management, Upkeep, and Restore
Half V Hybrid FRP Composite Programs
- Chapter 28 Introduction
- Chapter 29 Materials Traits and Fabrication Strategies
- Chapter 30 Development Concerns of Hybrid Members
- Chapter 31 Axial Hybrid Members
- Chapter 32 Flexural and Axial/Flexural Hybrid Members
- Chapter 33 QA/QC, Upkeep, and Restore of Hybrid Constructions
- Chapter 34 Examples and Case Research
Half VI Nondestructive Testing and Analysis
- Chapter 35 Introduction
- Chapter 36 Structural Well being Monitoring
- Chapter 37 Nondestructive Analysis Strategies for Composite Supplies: Basic Overview, Visible Inspection, and Microwave Strategies
- Chapter 38 Nondestructive Analysis Strategies for Composite Supplies: Infrared Thermography
- Chapter 39 Nondestructive Analysis Strategies for Composite Supplies: Acoustic Strategies
- Chapter 40 Load Testing of Bridge FRP Purposes
- Chapter 41 Good Composites
Preface to The International Handbook of FRP Composites in Civil Engineering
In 2008, the Nationwide Academy of Engineering recognized 14 grand challenges of the twenty-first century for engineering.
The grand challenges handle complicated social points that have an effect on our high quality of life, which require modern and systematic approaches to unravel (NAE, 2008). One of the 14 grand challenges is to revive and enhance city infrastructure.
It’s broadly identified that America’s infrastructure, together with these of many different nations, has been on the brink of disaster. Engineers of the twenty-first century face the formidable problem of revitalizing the ageing infrastructure in view of inadequate funding.
The American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) has given an general grade of “D+” to U.S. infrastructure (ASCE, 2013a).
In its most up-to-date report, “Failure to behave: The affect of present infrastructure funding on America’s financial future,” ASCE acknowledged that if infrastructure funding stays at present ranges, the nation will face losses of $3.1 trillion in the gross home product (GDP) and $1.1 trillion in commerce by the 12 months 2020, costing the common family $3100 per 12 months in disposable revenue (ASCE, 2013b).
Regarding elevating the grades, ASCE recommends the next 5 key options: (1) enhance federal management; (2) promote sustainability and resilience; (3) develop federal, regional, and state infrastructure plans; (4) handle life-cycle prices (LCCs) and ongoing upkeep; and (5) enhance and enhance infrastructure funding from all stakeholders (ASCE, 2013a).
Clearly, infrastructure renewals which might be primarily based on the identical practices, processes, applied sciences, and supplies that have been developed and employed in the 20 th century will most probably yield the identical outcomes (NRC, 2009).
These contain acquainted long-standing incidences of service disruptions, elevated working and restore prices, and catastrophic failures reminiscent of Minnesota’s I-35W Bridge collapse. To paraphrase Albert Einstein, “we will’t remedy issues by utilizing the identical type of pondering we used after we created them.”
To implement the 5 key options acknowledged earlier, a brand new paradigm for the renewal of vital infrastructure programs is required, which is environment friendly, dependable, and cost-effective.
Intensive analysis has yielded modern applied sciences and supplies that would lengthen and prolong the service lives of present infrastructure whereas offering alternatives for the design and building of extremely sturdy new constructions.
At this time, new applied sciences can be found that allow monitoring the situation and efficiency of infrastructure programs, whereas self-diagnosing, self-healing, and self-repairing programs might be designed to afford better resiliency, fewer long-term service disruptions, and decrease LCCs of infrastructure programs (Amin and Stringer, 2008).
Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composite know-how, developed primarily for the aerospace, protection, and marine industries, possesses many of the options talked about earlier for infrastructure functions.
Christened “the supplies of the twenty-first century,” the appliance of FRP composite know-how has resulted in a paradigm shift in materials utilization as a consequence of its inherent superior properties.
The quite a few benefits of FRP composites over standard building supplies reminiscent of metal, concrete, and wooden are well-known. There have been myriad profitable functions of FRP composites for repairing and retrofitting present infrastructure programs in addition to for brand new building during the last three a long time.
FRP composites are not thought-about the “space-age” constructions used completely for stealth bombers or area shuttles (ACMA, 2004). They’ve turn out to be an integral half of the development business as a result of of their versatility, enhanced sturdiness, and fatigue traits, noncorrosiveness, excessive strength-to-weight ratio, accelerated building characteristic, decrease upkeep, and LCCs.
Many extra composite merchandise are being actively developed and are rising for civil infrastructure functions, which is taken into account to be doubtlessly the most important marketplace for FRP composites (ACMA, 2004).
There have been a quantity of skilled organizations and technical committees worldwide concerned in growing and making ready codes, requirements, take a look at strategies, and specs concerning FRP composites for building.
As well as, there are a selection of regional, nationwide, and worldwide conferences and commerce exhibitions organized repeatedly that cowl all facets of FRP composites for building and showcase new concepts and improvements, rising applied sciences, greatest practices, and case research.
It’s the aim of this handbook to seize vital options of FRP composites, in relation to civil infrastructure functions, in a single quantity. This handbook shouldn’t be meant to function a textbook.
There have been a number of excellent textbooks printed reminiscent of Barbero (2011), Financial institution (2006), and Hollaway and Head (2001).
By and huge, the mission of The International Handbook of FRP Composites in Civil Engineering is to supply a single, complete, ready-to-use reference supply for the working towards engineer to maintain abreast of advances in supplies, strategies, practices, and structural well being monitoring (SHM) of FRP composites in civil infrastructure.
The important focus is on skilled functions, together with design formulation, tables, and charts that would present fast solutions to questions from sensible work. This handbook may even present a useful reference for undergraduate and graduate college students, researchers, and seasoned professionals.
Though the first viewers would be the civil engineering group, different engineering disciplines together with architectural, supplies, and aerospace engineering will profit from this single-volume supply as effectively.
The state-of-the-practice info that’s offered herein can be helpful for producers and suppliers of high-performance fiber-reinforced polymer composites in addition to for engineering corporations, the development business, and state departments of transportation.
This handbook is split into seven components. Every half, together with a number of chapters, focuses on completely different facets and/or functions of FRP composites.
Half I, “Composites Primer,” is meant to supply a short overview of FRP, comprising historic perspective, codes and requirements, manufacturing processes, constituent supplies, mechanics of composite supplies, and LCCs.
Traditionally, FRP composite has not been a required course as half of the undergraduate civil engineering curriculum. Thus, the bulk of working towards civil engineers haven’t had any background in composites.
The purpose of this half is to bridge this hole and to supply a fundamental understanding of the basics of FRP composites in relation to civil infrastructure functions. As well as, a short introduction in regards to the LCC, together with sustainability and environmental implications of FRP composites, has been offered herein.
FRP composite modular bridge decks supply viable various options to standard supplies reminiscent of strengthened concrete and metal bridges, that are liable to corrosion. FRP decks have intrinsic traits that allow them to be appropriate for the Federal Freeway Administration’s (FHWA’s) “Bridge of the Future” program (FHWA, 2013).
Their main advantages embody sturdiness (i.e., extremely proof against corrosion and fatigue), light-weight, excessive energy, fast set up, decrease or aggressive LCC, and high-quality manufacturing processes beneath managed environments (ACMA, 2004, 2013).
Lately, there have been quite a few profitable bridge deck installations worldwide using FRP composites. The important focus of Half II, “All-Composite Constructions and Parts,” is to current an summary of bridge deck functions together with a number of case research.
There’s additionally a chapter devoted to the vital matter of connection design for FRP structural members. Chapters in Half III, “Externally Bonded FRP Composite Programs for Rehabilitation,” take care of exterior reinforcement for rehabilitation.
Unstressed and prestressed flexural and shear strengthening of strengthened concrete constructions, unstressed and prestressed near-surface mounted reinforcement, confinement of concrete columns, strengthening of masonry, wooden and metallic constructions, and sturdiness points.
As well as, a number of numerical examples are included to show the design process for every case. Half IV, “FRP Composites for Reinforcement of Concrete Constructions,” focuses on FRP composites, which has been rising quickly in latest years.
Along with materials traits, design procedures, codes and requirements, and state of the observe associated to the interior reinforcement for concrete columns in addition to FRP prestressed concrete functions have been mentioned in element.
Moreover, particular sturdiness points together with high quality assurance–high quality management (QA/QC) points have been mentioned. Half V, “Hybrid FRP Composite Programs,” presents the subject of FRP composite hybrid programs, with an emphasis on design concerns of axial, flexural, and axial–flexural hybrid members.
As well as, building concerns together with QA/QC and restore of hybrid constructions have been mentioned. A number of related examples and case research are additionally included. Half VI, “Nondestructive Testing and Analysis,” elaborates on the functions of nondestructive testing and analysis for SHM of FRP composites.
With a purpose to guarantee the structural integrity and longterm reliability of constructions retrofitted through FRP composites, it’s vital to establish any potential defects throughout and following the appliance of FRP all through the construction’s service life.
State-of-the-art applied sciences for nondestructive analysis and SHM are expounded in this half. The case research particularly consult with bridge engineering functions. Furthermore, a complete chapter is dedicated to the vital matter of sensible composites.
Good supplies can actively sense, reply, and sometimes management the surroundings and inside states. The chapter gives up-to-date info because it pertains to FRP composites.
Lastly, Half VII, “Glossary,” consists of a number of appendices involving lists of FRP-related books, journals, convention proceedings and symposiums, organizations, and typical analysis papers in chosen areas.
The impetus for this handbook originated a number of years in the past once I was concerned in a pair of FRP-related bridge analysis initiatives. One of the initiatives was sponsored by the FHWA by means of the Progressive Bridge Analysis and Development (IBRC) initiative and administered by the Workplace of Bridge Know-how, Infrastructure Core Enterprise Unit.
The IBRC initiative promotes the use of modern supplies and supplies applied sciences in bridge functions (FHWA, 2013).
As half of this program, two severely deteriorated long-span, precast, prestressed concrete field girder bridges have been strengthened using superior carbon fiber–strengthened polymer (CFRP) composite strips, post-tensioned through the stress head system that was developed and patented in Switzerland (Zoghi et al., 2006).
SHM and a collection of full-scale live-load assessments have been additionally included in the rehabilitation plan. The approach, the primary of its sort in the USA, entailed a collaboration between authorities, academia, and business from the USA and Switzerland.
Because the principal investigator (PI) of the mission, I acknowledged the necessity for a single-volume supply all through the design, building, nondestructive testing and analysis, and SHM levels.
The second mission that was the impetus for the publication of this handbook was in relation to an all-composite vehicular bridge constructed in July 1997, rechristened Tech 21 (BCEO, 2001).
The two-lane, short-span bridge deck, supported on three trapezoidal beams fabricated utilizing E-glass fibers with polyester resin, was manufactured using sandwich configuration with a middle core made by bonding orthotropic fiberglass and polyester tubes (Zoghi et al, 2003).
Tech 21, the third all-composite vehicular bridge and first absolutely instrumented of its sort in the USA comprised of an intensive health-monitoring system put in throughout its fabrication. The construction was designed and manufactured by Martin Marietta Supplies, Inc.
This mission was additionally a three way partnership between authorities, business, and academia. Intimately concerned in numerous facets of the analysis, together with sturdiness research, finite-element modeling, full-scale live-load testing, and structural well being monitoring.
I grew to become conscious of the shortage of a complete but fast reference handbook that would supply solutions to pertinent sensible questions.
Evidently, the concept of a necessity for The International Handbook of FRP Composites in Civil Engineering was born by means of previous private experiences and worldwide collaboration.
From the inception of the mission, the editors of CRC Press, Michael Slaughter (government commissioning editor), Allison Shatkin (senior commissioning editor), and Theresa Gutierrez (editorial mission growth), wholeheartedly embraced the proposal and have since offered their unwavering help all through this very lengthy course of.
Their continued help is enormously appreciated. Additionally, Amy Blalock (mission coordinator), Robert Sims (mission editor), and Mythili Gopi (mission supervisor) and their associates labored diligently to deliver this handbook to realization.
I’m perpetually grateful to them for his or her arduous work and dedication. Paraphrasing Sir Isaac Newton, “If I’ve seen additional it’s by standing on the shoulders of giants.” That is certainly the case concerning the publication of the current handbook.
The editorship of every particular person half was carried out by the designated affiliate editor(s), who administered the duties of recruiting respective authors to organize chapters and cling to publication pointers and deadlines, together with the completion of the evaluation course of.
As well as, a number of affiliate editors drafted quite a few chapters in their respective components. I wish to specific my appreciation to all of the affiliate editors and authors for making ready the best high quality manuscripts that represent the crux of this handbook and for his or her invaluable contributions and dedication.
Lastly, my heartfelt gratitude to my household for his or her continued help and encouragement.
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