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Water Quality Engineering by Benjamin and Lower
Water Quality Engineering Contents
- PART I REACTORS AND REACTIONS IN WATER QUALITY ENGINEERING
- PART II REMOVAL OF DISSOLVED CONSTITUENTS FROM WATER
- PART III REMOVAL OF PARTICLES FROM WATER
- PART IV MEMBRANE-BASED WATER AND WASTEWATER TREATMENT
Preface to Water Quality Engineering
PURPOSE: This e-book has been written primarily as a textbook for a graduate course in bodily/chemical remedy processes for water and wastewater. Nevertheless, it also needs to be helpful to working environmental engineers in offering an intensive and cohesive understanding of processes that may not be simply achieved by studying journal articles.
Whereas some introductory materials is given for every topic, this e-book has been written with the idea that the reader has had earlier publicity, by class work or expertise, with customary water and wastewater remedy processes.
For example particular functions, examples are woven all through this e-book and issues are given on the finish of every chapter. This e-book is split into 4 components, as defined beneath.
ORGANIZATION: Half I: Chapters 1–4. This a part of this e-book describes the elemental instruments for investigating and finding out water and wastewater remedy processes. It units the stage for the following chapters by presenting the background that’s widespread to the evaluation and understanding of many remedy processes.
On the finish of this part, the reader ought to have a complicated understanding of how mass balances are utilized in steady move techniques through which reactions happen, and thereby will be capable of perceive and predict the adjustments in water high quality that happen in such reactors.
Particulars of the development of mass balances are offered in Chapter 1; descriptions of move traits are given in Chapter 2; the examine of response kinetics is launched in Chapter 3; and the fabric within the first three chapters is synthesized in Chapter 4.
These chapters are written in a very generic method (i.e., with little consideration to the appliance of the fabric to particular processes of curiosity in water and wastewater remedy) to emphasise that the fabric is usable in all kinds of conditions.
Half II: Chapters 5–10. This a part of the e-book describes processes for eradicating soluble contaminants from water (or, in a number of instances, inserting chemical substances of curiosity into water). The processes are utilized in numerous functions, from remedy of municipal and industrial wastes to the manufacturing of ingesting water or high-purity industrial course of water.
All the main processes which can be used broadly to take away soluble contaminants are lined on this part or within the membrane chapter that ends this e-book.
In every case, the emphasis is on elementary understanding of the method dynamics by means of an evaluation of batch (no move) techniques, adopted by the interaction between the response kinetics and the move traits of techniques through which these processes are sometimes carried out.
The results of course of variables (i.e., hydraulic, equilibrium, and kinetic) on course of design and course of efficiency are emphasised. The order of those chapters is such that they construct on one another, and on the sooner chapters.
Gasoline switch is roofed in Chapters 5 and 6, as a result of it’s often impartial of different processes (even when they occur concurrently) and it builds instantly on the sooner elementary chapters. Gasoline switch is among the few widespread processes for which design is at all times carefully associated to concept, and so the evaluation might be fairly elementary and nonetheless present an image of how fuel switch is achieved in real-engineered techniques.
Adsorption (Chapters 7 and 8) has many similarities to fuel switch and is usually thought-about as a potential various course of to fuel stripping for the removing of particular contaminants, so it’s offered subsequent.
For each fuel switch and adsorption, two chapters are offered, with the primary describing the underlying elementary science and the second presenting the appliance in water remedy engineering. Precipitation (Chapter 9) depends (partly) on adsorption and creates particles that have to be eliminated in subsequent processes (which can be lined within the third a part of this e-book).
Chemical oxidation (and, to a lesser extent, discount) (Chapter 10) is broadly used for the destruction of natural compounds and the transformation of objectionable inorganics to much less poisonous species; using so-called superior oxidation processes is increasing quickly within the discipline and will proceed to take action in future years.
Disinfection (the inactivation of microorganisms) depends instantly on oxidation processes and is included within the chapter on oxidation and discount. Half III: Chapters 11–14. This a part of the e-book focuses on processes for eradicating particulate supplies from water.
Many contaminants of water are particles to start with, are made into particles by precipitation, or are related to particles by adsorption; therefore, particle removing processes are used to take away contaminants that got here into the remedy system as soluble supplies in addition to to take away those who entered as particles.
Chapter 11 describes the basics which can be widespread to all of the particle removing processes, similar to properties of particles and interactions of particle surfaces with chemical substances in answer that decide a lot of particle habits and particle–particle interactions.
Particle removing processes are intrinsically bodily/chemical processes—the chemistry of all these processes is actually similar and is due to this fact lined on this chapter. This chapter additionally attracts closely on the chapters on adsorption and precipitation, because the chemistry of particle removing processes depends on these phenomena.
Subsequently, the chapters on flocculation (Chapter 12), gravity separations (Chapter 13), and granular media filtration (Chapter 14) emphasize the bodily points of those processes. These processes (or some subset of them) are sometimes carried out in sequence, and the order of the chapters displays the order of their look in a remedy practice. Half IV: Chapter 15.
An intensive chapter on membrane processes ends this e-book; membrane processes are used to take away each soluble and particulate supplies. Reasonably than divide this materials into separate chapters in order that they might be integrated into Elements II and III, we thought that this topic ought to stand alone and be handled in a unified manner.
The excellence between “what’s a particle” and “what’s a soluble entity” is blurry, and the continuum of membrane processes doesn’t power one to make an arbitrary dividing
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