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Device Modeling for Analog and RF CMOS Circuit Design
Device Modeling Contents
- MOSFET Device Physics and Operation
- MOSFET Fabrication
- RF Modeling
- Noise Modeling
- Correct Modeling for Correct Distortion Evaluation
- The BSIM4 MOSFET Mannequin
- The EKV Mannequin
- Different MOSFET Fashions
- Bipolar Transistors in CMOS Applied sciences
- Modeling of Passive Gadgets
- Results and Modeling of Course of Variation and Device Mismatch
- High quality Assurance of MOSFET Fashions
Preface to Device Modeling for Analog and RF CMOS Circuit Design
We’re lucky to reside in an age through which microelectronics nonetheless get pleasure from an accelerating progress in efficiency and complexity.
Thankfully, since we’re experiencing outstanding progress in science, in communication expertise, in our means to accumulate new information, and within the many different great facilities of recent society, all of that are permeated by and made attainable by trendy microelectronics.
This exponential evolutionary development, as described by Moore’s Regulation, has now lasted for greater than three many years, and remains to be on observe, fueled by a seemingly never-ending demand for ever higher efficiency and by fierce world competitors.
A driving power behind this implausible progress is the long-term dedication to a gentle downscaling of MOSFET/CMOS expertise wanted to satisfy the necessities on pace, complexity, circuit density, and energy consumption posed by the various superior purposes counting on this expertise.
The diploma of scaling is measured by way of the half-pitch measurement of the first-level interconnect in DRAM expertise, additionally termed the “expertise node” by the Worldwide Expertise Roadmap for Semiconductors.
On the time of the 2001 ITRS replace, the expertise node had reached 130 nm, whereas the smallest options, the MOSFET gate lengths, have been a mere 65 nm.
Inside a decade, these numbers are anticipated to be near 40 nm and 15 nm, respectively. Crucial points on this growth are the rising ranges of complexity of the fabrication course of and the various refined mechanisms that govern the properties of deep submicrometer FETs.
These mechanisms, dictated by machine physics, need to be described and applied into circuit design instruments to empower the circuit designers with the power to completely make the most of the potential of current and future applied sciences.
Therefore, circuit designers are confronted with the relentless problem of staying up to date on the properties, potentials, and the restrictions of the newest machine expertise and machine fashions.
That is very true for designers of analog and radio frequency (RF) built-in circuits, the place the sensitivity to the modeling particulars and the interaction between particular person gadgets is extra acute than for digital electronics.
A deeper perception into these points is subsequently essential for gaining the aggressive edge wanted to make sure first-time-right silicon and to scale back time-to-market for new merchandise.
Present textbooks on analog and RF CMOS circuit design historically lack a radical therapy of the machine modeling challenges outlined above.
Our main goals with the current ebook are to bridge the hole between machine modeling and analog circuit design by presenting the state-of-the-art MOSFET fashions which are obtainable in analog and SPICEtype circuit simulators in the present day, along with associated modeling problems with significance to each circuit designers and college students, now and sooner or later.
This ebook is meant as a important or supplementary textual content for senior and graduate-level programs in analog built-in circuit design, in addition to a reference and a textual content for self or group research by training design engineers.
Particularly in pupil design tasks, we foresee that this ebook will likely be a useful handbook in addition to a reference, each on primary modeling points and on particular MOSFET fashions encountered in circuit simulators.
Likewise, training engineers can use the ebook to reinforce their perception into the rules of MOSFET operation and modeling, thereby enhancing their design abilities.
We assume that the reader already has a primary information of widespread digital gadgets and circuits, and basic ideas reminiscent of small-signal operation and equal circuits.
The ebook is organized into twelve chapters. In Chapter 1, the reader is launched to primary physics, the rules of operation, and the modeling of MOS constructions and MOSFETs.
This chapter additionally discusses most of the points which are necessary within the modeling of modern-day MOSFETs. Chapter 2 walks the reader via the fabrication steps of recent MOSFET and CMOS expertise.
In Chapter 3, the particular issues and the challenges of correct modeling of MOSFETs working at radio frequencies are mentioned. Chapter 4 offers with the modeling of noise in MOSFETs.
Distortion evaluation, mentioned in Chapter 5, is of particular concern for analog MOSFET circuit design. In Chapters 6, 7, and 8, we current the state-of-the-art MOSFET fashions which are generally utilized by the analog design group in the present day.
The fashions coated are BSIM4, EKV, MOS Mannequin 9, and MOSA1. These chapters are written in a reference model to supply a fast lookup when the ebook is used as a handbook.
Chapters 9 and 10 are dedicated to the modeling of different gadgets which are of significance in typical analog CMOS circuits, reminiscent of bipolar transistors (Chapter 9) and passive gadgets, together with resistors, capacitors, and inductors (Chapter 10).
The remaining two chapters take care of important industry-related problems with circuit design. Chapter 11 discusses the necessary subject of modeling of course of variations and machine mismatch results and Chapter 12 offers with the standard assurance of the machine fashions utilized by the design homes.
The ebook is accompanied by two software program software instruments, AIM-Spice and MOSCalc. AIM-Spice is a model of SPICE with customary SPICE parameters, very acquainted to many electrical engineers and electrical engineering college students.
Operating below the Microsoft Home windows household of working programs, it takes full benefit of the obtainable graphical consumer interface. The AIM-Spice software program will run on all PCs geared up with Home windows 95, 98, ME, NT 4, 2000, or XP.
Along with all of the fashions included in Berkeley SPICE (Model 3e.1), AIM-Spice incorporates BSIM4, EKV, and MOSA1, which have been coated in Chapters 6, 7, and 8. A restricted model of AIM-Spice will be downloaded from www.aimspice.com.
The second software, MOSCalc, is a Internet-based calculator for fast estimates of MOSFET large- and small-signal parameters.
The designer enters the gate size and width, and a variety of bias voltages and/or the transistor currents, whereupon portions reminiscent of gate overdrive voltage, efficient threshold voltage, drain-source saturation voltage, all terminal currents, transconductance, channel conductance, and all small-signal intrinsic capacitances are calculated.
MOSCalc is out there at ngl.fysel.ntnu.no. These devoted software program instruments permit college students to resolve actual engineering issues, which brings semiconductor machine physics and modeling residence to the consumer at a really sensible stage, bridging the hole between principle and follow.
AIM-Spice and MOSCalc can be utilized routinely by training engineers in the course of the design section of analog built-in circuits.
We’re grateful to the next colleagues for their strategies and/or for reviewing parts of this ebook: Matthias Bucher and Bjørnar Hernes.
We’d additionally like to specific our appreciation to the employees at Wiley, UK, and specifically to Kathryn Sharples, for making attainable the well timed manufacturing of the ebook.
Lastly, we want to thank our households for their nice assist, persistence, and understanding supplied all through the interval of writing.
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