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The Materials Science of Thin Films by Milton Ohring
Contents of Materials Science of Thin Films
- Chapter 1. A Evaluation of Materials Science
- Chapter 2. Vacuum Science and Know-how
- Chapter 3. Bodily Vapor Deposition
- Chapter 4. Chemical Vapor Deposition
- Chapter 5. Movie Formation and Construction
- Chapter 6. Characterization of Thin Films
- Chapter 7. Epitaxy
- Chapter 8. Interdiffusion and Reactions in Thin Films
- Chapter 9. Mechanical Properties of Thin Films
- Chapter 10. Electrical and Magnetic Properties of Thin Films
- Chapter 11. Optical Properties of Thin Films
- Chapter 12. Metallurgical and Protecting Coatings
- Chapter 13. Modification of Surfaces and Films
- Chapter 14. Rising Thin-Movie Materials and Functions
Preface to Materials Science of Thin Films
Thin-film science and know-how play an important position within the high-tech industries that may bear the principle burden of future American competitiveness.
Whereas the foremost exploitation of skinny movies has been in microelectronics, there are quite a few and rising purposes in communications, optical electronics, coatings of all types, and in power technology and conservation methods.
An ideal many subtle analytical devices and strategies, largely developed to characterize skinny movies and surfaces, have already develop into indispensable in nearly each scientific endeavor irrespective of self-discipline.
After I was referred to as upon to supply a course on skinny movies, it turned a real supply of concern to me that there have been no appropriate textbooks out there on this unquestionably necessary subject.
This e book, written with a supplies science taste, is a response to this want. It’s supposed for
1. Science and engineering college students in superior undergraduate or first-year graduate degree programs on skinny movies.
2. Members in industrial in-house programs or quick programs provided by skilled societies.
3. Mature scientists and engineers switching profession instructions who require an summary of the sphere.
Readers must be fairly conversant with introductory faculty chemistry and physics and possess a passive cultural familiarity with matters generally handled in undergraduate bodily chemistry and modem physics programs.
It’s worthwhile to briefly elaborate on this e book’s title and the connection between skinny movies and the broader self-discipline of supplies science and engineering.
A dramatic enhance in our understanding of the elemental nature of supplies all through a lot of the 20th century has led to the event of supplies science and engineering.
This era witnessed the emergence of polymeric, nuclear, and digital supplies, new roles for metals and ceramics, and the event of dependable strategies to course of these supplies in bulk and thin-film kind.
Conventional academic approaches to the examine of supplies have harassed structure-property relationships in bulk solids, usually using metals, semiconductors, ceramics; and polymers, taken singly or collectively as illustrative automobiles to convey rules.
The similar spirit is adopted on this e book besides that skinny stable movies are the automobile. As well as, the essential theme has been expanded to incorporate the multifaceted processingstructure-properties-performance interactions.
Thus the unique science core is preserved however enveloped by the engineering considerations of processing and efficiency.
Inside this context, I’ve tried to weave threads of commonality amongst seemingly totally different supplies and properties, in addition to to attract distinctions between supplies that exhibit outwardly similiar conduct.
Particularly, parallels and contrasts between movies and bulk supplies are recurring themes.
An non-obligatory introductory assessment chapter on normal matters in supplies establishes a basis for subsequent chapters.
Following a second chapter on vacuum science and know-how, the remaining textual content is broadly organized into three classes.
Chapters 3 and 4 take care of the rules and practices of movie deposition from the vapor part.
Chapters 5-9 take care of the processes and phenomena that affect the structural, chemical, and bodily attributes of movies, and how you can characterize them.
Matters mentioned embrace nucleation, progress, crystal perfection, epitaxy, mass transport results, and the position of stress.
These are the widespread thin-film considerations irrespective of utility. The ultimate portion of the e book (Chapters 10-14) is essentially dedicated to particular movie properties (electrical, magnetic, optical, mechanical) and purposes, in addition to to rising supplies and processes.
Though the primary 9 chapters could also be considered as core material, the final 5 chapters provide elective matters supposed to deal with particular person pursuits.
It’s my hope that instructors utilizing this e book will discover this division of matters a helpful one.
A lot of the e book displays what’s of present curiosity to the thin-film analysis and growth communities.
Examples embrace chapters on chemical vapor deposition, epitaxy, interdiffusion and reactions, metallurgical and protecting coatings, and floor modification.
The subject is evolving so quickly that even the classics of yesteryear, e.g., Maissel and Glang, Handbook of Thin Movie Know-how (1970) and Chopra,
Thin Movie Phenomena (1969), in addition to newer books on skinny movies, e.g., Pulker, Coatings on Glass (1984), and Eckertova, Physics of Thin Films (1986), make little or no point out of these now necessary topics.
As each e book should essentially set up its boundaries, I wish to level out the next:
(1) Aside from coatings (Chapter 12) the place thicknesses vary from a number of to as a lot as a whole lot of microns (1 micron or 1 pm = lop6 meter), the e book is primarily involved with movies which might be lower than 1 pm thick.
(2) Solely movies and coatings fashioned from the fuel part by bodily (PVD) or chemical vapor deposition (CVD) processes are thought of.
Subsequently spin and dip coating, flame and plasma spraying of powders, electrolytic deposition, and so on., won’t be handled.
(3) The subject of polymer movies might simply justify a monograph of its personal, and therefore won’t be mentioned right here.
(4) Time and house merely don’t permit for growth of all matters from first rules. (Nonetheless, I’ve prevented utilizing the unwelcome phrase
“It may be proven that . . . ,” and have avoided utilizing different textbooks or the analysis literature to fill in lacking steps of derivations.)
(5) A single set of items (e.g., CGS, MKS, SI, and so on.) has been purposely prevented to raised deal with the wants of a multifaceted and interdisciplinary viewers.
Widespread utilization, business terminology, the analysis literature and easy bias and comfort have all performed a job within the ecumenical show of items.
The place mandatory, conversions between totally different programs of items are supplied.
On the finish of every chapter are issues of various problem, and I consider a deeper sense of the subject material shall be gained by contemplating them.
Three very elegant issues (Le. 9-6, -7, -8) had been developed by Professor W. D. Nix, and I thank him for his or her use.
By emphasizing immutable ideas, I hope this e book shall be spared the specter of fast obsolescence.
Nevertheless, if this e book will in some small measure assist spawn new know-how rendering it out of date, it can have served a helpful operate.
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