England’s Debt to India by Lala Lajpat Rai :: In this book Lala Lajpat Rai analyze economic effects of British Rules in India taking an impartial view of the subject. This book contains extensive quotation from contemporary English economists and politicians which can help in understanding true picture of Economic effects of British rule in India. This book also analyze growth of Railways and it economic effects. I believe that this book will help in clearing many misconceptions about British Rule in India.

Extract from the book “England’s Debt To India”

India’s “Gift” of One Hundred Million Pounds to England. Since the above was put in type our work fears have come to be true .The British Government of India has decided, with the sanction of the secretary of state for India, to float a war loan in India of an unlimited amount The idea is to make a gift of $100,000,000 (or $500,000,000) to the British Exchequer. The amount of the loan , or as much is raised, will be made over to the Government of Great Britain and liability for the rest will be accepted by the Government of India. The British cabinet have , with the sanction of The house of commons, accepted this “gift” and in lieu therefore allowed the Indian Government to raise their customs duty on the imports of cotton goods by four percent.ad valorem. This transaction involves an additional burden of $6000,000 a year (or$30,000,000) on the Indian tax payer. It is expected that out of this some $1,000,000 will be recovered by the additional duty on cotton imports and the rest will be raised by additional taxation.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

A HISTORICAL RETROSPECT

India Once War Rich

Thornton’s “Description of Ancient India.”

India Reform Pamphlet.

The Observations of Mr. Torrcns, M. P., comparing India with Europe.

India Under the Mohammedans

Raid of Tamerlane.

From 1206 to 1526 A.D.

Elphinstane on the General State of the Country.

Carsar Frederic and Ibn Batuta.

Abdurisag.

Baber.

Sher Shah.

Akbar.

Pietro del Valle

Shah Jehan

Aurangzeb and His Successors

The Raid by Nadir Shah

Pre-British Period

Principal Political Divisions of the Country

Tonjore and Arcot

Mysore

Northern India

Bengal

The Kingdom of Oude

INDIA AND BRITISH INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

Before Plassy

Effects of Plassy

The Second Administration of Lord Clive

“TRIBUTE” OR “ DRAIN”

General Observations

Drain: the Case Against England

Drain: the Case for England.

Drain: Weighing the Evidence.

The Extent of the Drain

HOW INDIA HAS HELPED ENGLAND MAKE HER EMPIRE

India and “The Empire”

Lord Lansdowne on the Indian Army

Lord Roberts on India as Training Ground for British Army

Sir Henry Brackenberry on Indian Army Expenditure

Sir Edwin Collen on the Apportionment of Expense

Lord Northbrook on Wars Outside India

The First Treaty with Persia

Other Nations of Asia

Isle of France

The Muluccas

Ceylon

Eastern Archipelago; Strait: of Malacca and Singapore

Siam and Cochin-China

Burmah

Malacca

The China Consular Representatives

Aden

The Zanzibar and Mauritius Cable

The Red Sea Telegraph

THE COTTON INDUSTRY OF INDIA

Early Mention

Excellence of Indian Cotton Fabric

Extent of Cotton Industry in Olden times

Decline of the Indian Industry

Besides the Drawback of the Excise Duty

Silk Goods

Testimony of Montgomery Martin

Cotton Goods

Legislative Acts

Cotton duties — 1917 developments

SHIPBUILDING AND SHIPPING

Conditions in Foarmor Times

The Decline of the Industry

Ships built at Indian Ports

Ships Built at Indian Ports – Continued

MISCELLANEOUS INDUSTRIAL, AGRICULTURAL, AND MINING OPERATION

Indigo

Jute

Woollen Mills

Paper Mills

Breweries

Rice Mills and Saw Mills

Iron

Copper

Manganese

Coal

Other Minerals

Tea and Coffee

AGRICULTURE

India’s Greatest Industry

Land Tax

Bengal

Northern India

Bombay

Village Communities

Changes Under the British Rule

The Punjab

Central Provinces

The Present Policy as to the Land Tax

ECONOMIC CONDITION OF THE PEOPLE

The Poverty of the Masses

Testimony of English Public Man

Average Income of the People

FAMINES AND THEIR CAUSES

Famine: in the Past

Mr. Digby’s Table

Digby’s “Prosperous British India.”

Famines in the Twentieth Century

Famines During the British Period

Causes of Famines

Shortage of Rainfall

Are the Famine: of India Due to Over-Population !

Are Famines Due to Scarcity of Food!

Is the Distress Due to the Extravagance of the Ryat on Occasions of Marriages and Funerals!

The True Cause

FAMINE RELIEF

Building of Railways

Building of Canals and Irrigation Works

Pressure on Land

The Opening of Agricultural Banks

Special Agrarian Legislation

RAILWAYS AND IRRIGATION

The Government Policy

The Beginning of Railway Policy

Benefits of Capital Investment

Irrigation

EDUCATION AND LITERACY

Early Conditions

Law

Medicine

Engineering

Agriculture

Technical and Industrial Education

Commercial Schools

Art Schools

Education of Europeans

Education of Girls

CERTAIN FALLACIES ABOUT THE “PROSPERITY OF INDIA” EXAMINED

TAXES AND EXPENDITURE

Abstract of Revenue and Expenditure

Ingenious Way of Calculating the Burden of Taxation

The Growth of Army Expenditure

The Growth of Expenditure on Education

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

APPENDICES

How the Villager: Live in the Madras Presidency — An Article from the Tribune of Lahore of January 19, 1917

WAGES IN INDIA

APPENDIX E

THE COST OF ADMINISTRATION IN INDIA, JAPAN AND THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

PROPORTION OF INDIANS IN HIGHER SERVICES — LATEST FIGURES

Gold Value of Rupee

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